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Research Evidence for Meditation

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Rebecca Marshall

on 24 January 2014

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Transcript of Research Evidence for Meditation

Research Evidence for Meditation*
*Meditation as Medicine?
Psoriasis
Decreased Systolic Blood Pressure
Decreased cortisol, stress and mood disorders
Randomized control waitlist
Increases Immune Function
Randomized, controlled study
8-week meditation program
Increase in antibodies to influenza vaccine
left sided anterior activation (positive affect
Diabetes
Improved Glycemic control and mean arterial pressure
Improved depression, anxiety, and general distress
"Mindfulness means paying attention in a particular way; On purpose, in the present moment, and nonjudgmentally."
-Jon Kabat-Zinn
What is Mindfulness?
Fortunately, mindfulness is not something that you have to get or acquire. It is already within you— a deep internal resource available and patiently waiting to be released and used in the service of learning, growing, and healing.

-Center for Mindfulness at
University of Massachusetts Medical School
Psoriasis is
aggravated
by stress!
UVA/PUVA or UVA/PUVA + Mindfulness
Benefit of listening to Audio of Guided Mindfulness
Random assignment
Faster resolution
Rebecca Shisler Marshall, PhD, CCC-SLP
Communication Sciences and Special Education
University of Georgia

STRESS
Raises
Blood Pressure,
decreases
memory
Decreases
immune
function,
alters DNA
NT and
hormones
released
Brain
Perceives
Stress
Changes
blood flow,
neurons
Kabat-Zinn et al., (1998)
stress reduction
Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction
Mindfulness Meditation Interventions
Davidson al., 2003;
Psychosomatic Medicine
Attention
Rosenzweig et al., 2007
Breast and Prostate Cancer
Speca et al., (2000);
Carlson et al., (2007)
Multiple Sclerosis
Disease of the Immune System

Improved HRQOL
Decreased depression and fatigue
150 participants (randomized controlled)
Grossman et al., 2010
-National MS Society
Chronic Pain
Decreases Chronic Pain
Kabat-Zinn et al., 1985; Zeutra et al., 2008
Increases mood and QOL in Fibromyalgia
Grossman et al., 2007; Sephton et al., 2007; Schmidt et al., 2011
Decreases low back pain
Morone et al., 2008 a,b
Is chronic pain due to a lack of attentional flexibility?
One proposal is that it works b/c "unsticking" the sensory attentional system
Kerr et al., 2013
IBS
Improves mood and Quality of life for patients with IBS
Gaylord et al., 2011
Depression is the leading cause of disability in the USA (WHO)
Lower rate of depression relapse in Major Depressive Disorder
Teasdale, 2000
Depression and Anxiety

Reviews: Toneatto & Nguyen; Grossman et al., 2004
Prevent mood disorders for those at a high risk for depression
Ma and Teasdale, 2004; Segal et al., 2010; Fjorback et al., 2011; Piet and Hougaard, 2011
Decreased generalized anxiety and panic disorders
Kabat-Zinn et al. 1992
Maintained at 3 year follow up!
Miller et al., 1995
Also used in treatment strategies for rheumatoid arthritis to improve overall well-being
Zeutra et al., 2008
Brain Changes
Specific areas of cortical thickness in experienced meditators

Changes in neural networks underlying emotion regulation
Lazar et al., 2005
Holzeletal et al., 2008
Decreased amygdala response and activation in midline cortical areas after Mindfulness
Goldin & Gross, 2010
Farbetal et al., 2007
EEG studies have demonstrated a significant increase in alpha and theta activity (relaxation)
Cahn & Polich, 2006
Shift towards left-sided anterior alpha activation (positive emotions)
EEG
Davidson et al. 1990
fMRI
fMRI studies have demonstrated a significant increase in the prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex
Decrease in midline structure activation
Ives-Deliperi et al., 2011
Even brief mindfulness trainings in novice individuals have shown different fMRI activations
attention network:
anterior cingulate, insula and frontal–parietal regions including TPJ, SPL, superior frontal gyrus, pre-supplementary motor area and dorsomedial PFC.
Dickenson et al., 2013
Increases attention and cognitive functioning
Moore & Malinowski, 2009; Jha et al., 2007; Rutschman, 2004 ; Slagter et al., 2007; Tang et al., 2007; van den Hurk et al., 2010 Kerr et al. 2013 is a nice review
Improves attention performance
Valentine & Sweet, 1999; Jha et al. 2007; Chambers et al. 2008
Attention
Alterting
Conflict
Resolution
Attentional Subsystems
Orienting
Jha et al., 2007
Participants in the MBSR course demonstrated significantly improved orienting in comparison to control and retreat groups
Participants in the retreat group demonstrated altered performance on the alerting component
Jha et al., 2007
Connection with working memory and attention
Working Memory
Jha, 2002
Mindfulness also enhances working memory
Jha et al., 2010; VanVugt and Jha, 2011 Chambers et al., 2008; Kozhevnikov et al., 2009; Zeidan et al., 2010
Aphasia
Deficits in attention or in allocating attention
Higher levels of cortisol
Higher levels of perceived stress
Laures et al., 2003
Laures-Gore et al., 2007
Murray, 2000; McNeil et al., 1991; Shisler, 2005; Marshall et al., 2013
Mindfulness for Aphasia
Reduced Mood
"70% of the aphasic patients fulfilled the DSM-III-R criteria of depression 3 months and 62% 12 months after stroke."
Kauhanen et al., 2000
Orenstein et al., 2012
10 minutes!
Higher levels of cortisol in IBS versus control
Patacchioli et al., 2001
Zeidana et al., 2011; 2012
rostral anterior cingulate cortex
right anterior insula
cognitive control!
thalamic
orbitofrontal cortex
primary
somatosensory
cortex
Full transcript