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Human Development Project

weeks of pregnancy
by

Breanna Wood

on 2 May 2013

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Transcript of Human Development Project

babies' on the way! The week by week on our pregnancy of twins How does it start? Anatomy of males and females The Conception Week 21 Males The Scrotum The scrotum is a sac that hangs behind the penis and holds the testes. The Testes The testes are inside the scrotum and divided by Septa. These hold the testicles, which produce sperm needed for reproduction. The Penis The penis is designed to deliver sperm into the female reproductive tract. The Male Duct System The epididymis, ductus deferens, ejaculatory duct, and the urethra are the journey the sperm take to go to the female reproductive tract. The seminal vesicles and prostate assist in this matter. The duct system in males is inclusive of the epididymis, the ductus deferens, ejaculatory duct and the urethra. Females The ovaries are located on each side of the uterus The ovaries the ovarian cycle which the monthly series that have two consecutive phases
- the follicular phase
- the luteal phase the follicular phase is the period of follicle growth usually lasts 14 days after ovulation, the ruptured follicle collapses and the antrum fills with clotted blood. it begins to secrete progesterone and some estrogen. if the oocyte is fertilized the corpus luteum persist until the placenta is ready to take over its hormone-producing duties in about 3 months. The Female Duct System The Uterine Tubes The uterine tubes are the place where fertilization happens. This extends from the ovaries to a place in the uterus called the isthmus. Works Cited:
Female/Male Anatomy Pictures: http://www.emcp.com/college_resource_centers/listonline.php?GroupID=7620 ch. 15
Anatomy of the Breast:
http://www.medicinenet.com/breast/article.htm
Spermatogenesis
http://www.google.com/imgres?q=spermatogenesis&num=10&hl=en&biw=1366&bih=482&tbm=isch&tbnid=0mm27sTvahTLfM:&imgrefurl=http://bio1152.nicerweb.com/Locked/media/ch46/spermatogenesis.html&docid=RYlhi9K9pKJTHM&imgurl=http://bio1152.nicerweb.com/Locked/media/ch46/46_12Spermatogenesis.jpg&w=716&h=604&ei=LlFeUMyoAKW2QWfv4GgCg&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=359&vpy=157&dur=2466&hovh=206&hovw=244&tx=143&ty=142&sig=108187059893398990411&page=1&tbnh=117&tbnw=139&start=0&ndsp=16&ved=1t:429,r:2,s:0,i:132
Oogenesis:
http://ldysinger.stjohnsem.edu/ThM_599d_Beg/02_Biology/02_spermat-oogen.htm
Hormonal Regulation in Males:
http://www.google.com/imgres?q=hormonal+regulation+of+male+reproductive+system&um=1&hl=en&sa=N&biw=1366&bih=530&tbm=isch&tbnid=zzUCAUvKQBvH5M:&imgrefurl=http://www.creationofman.net/chapter3/chapter3_17.html&docid=_MHEvJxDfg7bMM&imgurl=http://www.creationofman.net/chapter3/res/127.jpg&w=360&h=499&ei=9sBbUM2IBeae2gWp94HABg&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=503&vpy=126&dur=1963&hovh=264&hovw=191&tx=105&ty=169&sig=108187059893398990411&page=1&tbnh=162&tbnw=117&start=0&ndsp=12&ved=1t:429,r:2,s:0,i:79
Fertilization:
http://www.babycenter.com/fetal-development-images-2-weeks
Developing Twins:
http://www.babycenter.com/twins-fetal-development-week-by-week The Uterus The vagina is a tube below the uterus. It is often called the birth canal because it is the place where babies are born through. Menstrual flow also goes through here, and the vagina is also where the penis and semen are taken up during intercourse. The Vagina The uterus is located in the pelvic area and is the place where a fertilized egg (ovum) can fully develop and be nourished until birth. The main part of the uterus is called the body and the minor parts include the fundus and cervix. The fundus is located above the fallopian tubes on the uterus and the cervix connects the uterus to the vagina to the inferior of the uterus. The luteal phase is a stage of the menstrual cycle that lasts about two weeks. It starts at ovulation and ends at the beginning of the next menstrual cycle. The Luteal Phase The Mammary Glands Mammary glands are found underneath the skin. Leading from the skin to the inside is the nipple, which is what a newborn baby latches onto when receiving milk. The inside of the breast contains around 15-25 lobes that circle around and open at the nipple. The lobes are separated by connective tissue and fat. Lobules are inside each of these lobes. Lobules hold the alveoli, which produce milk if the woman is pregnant. Lactiferous ducts and sinus are where the milk is stored and transported. Spermatogenesis Spermatogenesis— sequence of events of testes that produces male gametes.
For each chromosome, there’s a pair. There’s a paternal chromosome that you get from your father and the maternal chromosome that you get from your mother. Meiosis is a unique kind of division that occurs in the gonads. Two types of meiosis.
1.replicated chromosomes seek out their partners and pair up with them along the entire length--- Synapsis. Little groups of four chromatids are called tetrads. Crossovers are formed when each tetrad wrap around each other at one or more points.
2. Meiosis 2 is just like mitosis except it doesn’t replicate. Equal division of meiosis is what meiosis 2 is called. It accomplishes two important tasks—cuts in half the chromosome number and it brings genetic variability.
Spermatogenic cells= sperm forming
Spermatogonia= sperm seed. divide until puberty. Type A daughter cell- bottom of membrane to maintain the germ cell line. Type B becomes a primary spermatocyte. Destined to produce four sperm. Secondary spermatocyte is two small haploid cells forming. Spermatids are small round cells with large, spherical nuclei that are closer to the tubule. Midway through spermatogenesis sperm turn off their genes. Spermatozoon has a head, a midpiece, and a tail. The head of the sperm is a flat nucleus which contains DNA. The acrosome is the top of the nucleus that is helmet-like. It produces the golgi apparatus and contains hydrolytic enzyme that allows the sperm to penetrate the egg. The midpiece contains mitochondria that are spiraled tightly around the filaments of the tail. The tail is produced by the centriole near the nucleus. The mitochondria provides energy for the tail to move whiplike along its way into the female reproductive tract. Hormonal Regulation of Male Reproduction The process of hormonal regulation has to go through the Brain-Testicular Axis. It has five sequences.
1. The hypothalamus releases GnRH. GnRH controls the release of FSH and LH.
2. The GnRH hormone is bound to pituitary cells which then prompt the release of LH and FSH.
3. Sustentacular cells releases ABP after FSH stimulates them. After this is done, ABP prompts cells called spermatogenic cells to make testosterone, the male reproductive hormone. FSH also makes the spermatogenic cells become more receptive to the testosterone's effects.
4. LH binds to cells called interstitial cells. This prompts them to secrete testostorone.
5. Testosterone releases gonadotropin. Inhibin is the counter and regulator of spermatogenesis. Oogenesis Oogenesis-----beginning of an egg.
First fetal period the diploid cells multiply rapidly and enter a growth phase. Primary oocytes are a single layer of flattened follicle cells. During meiosis, only one is selected each time to continue meiosis. Ultimately producing two haploid cells. Smaller cell is called the first polar body. The secondary oocyte contains all the cytoplasm from the primary oocyte. The first polar body will continue to produce even smaller polar bodies. If the second oocyte is not penetrated by the sperm it deteriorates. But if it does, it quickly completes meiosis 2, creating one large ovum and a second polar body. Typically there’s one ovulation each month, fewer than 500 oocytes of her estimated potential 250,000 are released during the woman’s lifetime. Hormonal Regulation of the ovarian cycle in females Hormonal Regulation of the Ovarian Cycle
The first menstrual period of a young woman is called menarche. Men= month Arche= first. It isn’t until the third year, the menarche cycles become regular and ovulatory. Interactions during the cycle—
1—rising levels of GnRH increase production and release a follicle stimulated hormone and luteinizing hormone by the pituitary.
2. The FSH exerts main effects on the follicle cells. The LH targets the thecal cells. As the follicles enlarge, the thecal cells produce androgens. They go to the bottom of the membrane wherer they’re converted to estrogens by the grandulosa cells.
3. The rising levels of estrogen exert negative feedback on the pituitary and it will release the FSH and LH, simultaneously converting it to synthesize and accumulate gonadotropins. Inhibin exerts negative feedback and controls the FSH during this period.
4. Once estrogen reaches a critical blood concentration it eserts a positive feedback on the brain and the pituitary .
5. The high estrogen levels set the release of the accumulated LH by the pituitary in about mid-cycle.
6.the LH will push ovulation to begin at or around day 14. In about 5 minutes the he region of the follicle wall will bulges out thins than ruptures, after ovulation the levels of estrogen declines.
7.The LH transforms and begins to produce progesterone and estrogen from an endocrine gland.
8. Rising estrogen and progesterone levels forces a powerful negative effect on the LH and the FSH of the pituitary. The Menstrual Cycle Postovulatory Phase--Day 15-28 The tissue and blood pass through the vagina. This is the menstrual flow. Growing ovarian follicles start to produce more estrogen by day 5. The endometrium detaches from the uterine wall, which causes bleeding for 3-5 days. Preovulatory Phase--Day 6-14 Menstrual Phase--Days 1-5 Gonadotropins begin to rise and hormones of the ovary are low. Endometrium rebuilds and creates a new funcitonal layer. Estrogen levels rise and cause mucus in cervix to thin. This helps sperm get into the uterus. Ovulation takes 5 minutes and occurs in the last part of this phase. The ruptured follicle turns into a corpus luteum. Endometium prepares for an embryo to be implanted. The functional layer turns into a mucosa. Uterine glands become larger and secrete glycogen into uterine cavity. These sustain the embryo until it is implanted. Progesterone forms the cervical plug and helps keep the uterus "private" until the embryo has implanted. If fertilization does not happen, the corpus luteum degenerates, progesterone levels fall, and the endometrial cells die. Fertilization of the egg Cleavage and Implantation Cleavage refers to period where the zygote multiplies cells like crazy. The first cleavage division divides the cell into two cells. The next does four, and keeps doubling. Once it reaches 16 or more cells, it is called a morula. Gastrula is when the embryonic disk that is two layers becomes a three-layered embryo. The embryo has a longitudinal axis that is established by a groove called the primitive streak that comes up on the dorsal surface. Surface cells of the embryonic disk move to the primitive streak via other cells. These cells eventually form three layers: the endoderm, the mesoderm, and the ectoderm. The Blastocyst is formed when the zona pellucida starts to break down after the morula has compacted. This happens when the embryo is floating freely in the uterus, before it is implanted. You can see in the picture that among several other things developing, the blastocyst that is forming is also visible in the left corner. Fertilization is the effect of an egg and a sperm fusing together.
This fertilized egg is now called a zygote. The baby in the making is called a embryo. It is called this from fertilization to week 8. This is what our twins look like at week 8! PREGNANCY- Refers to events that occur from the time of fertilization until the infant is born the gestation period- The time during which development occurs The embryo - which is what the baby is called from fertilization till week 8 fertilization occurs when a sperm fuses with an egg to form a fertilized egg or a zygote.. the fetus - the young in the womb., from week 9 till birth sperm transport and capacitation a man deposits sperm into a female vagina. Millions of sperm leak into the vagina. More sperm is destroyed by the acid of the vagina. unless the cervical mucus has become liquid. they have to fight their way through forceful uterine contractions. Only few thousands are conducted be reverse peristalsis into and up the uterine tubes. Hormonal Control of Implantation most sperm don't even reach the oocyte. millions are destroyed by the acid produced by the vagina unless the cervical mucus is liquid. only a couple of thousands are conducted by reverse persistalsis into the uterine tubes. the sperm must be capacitated over the next 6-8 hours. Their membranes become fragile so that they can be released. The sperm has to wait for the oocyte for the process of capacitation. this prevents the spilling of enzymes. Hormone control is important for implantation to occur. The endometrium becomes receptive to implantation by the rising levels of estrogen and progesterone. When the egg has implanted, the endometrium thickens and begins to be torn down by the outside trophoblast cells. Once implanted, the cells begin to produce hCG, the human pregnancy hormone. This prompts the corpus luteum to continue to let out estrogen and progesterone so that the endometrium does not slip back into it's normal procedure, menses. Formation of extraembryonic membranes the olfactory receptors - which respond to chemical stimuli and it is presumed that the oocyte or its surrounding cells release signaling molecules that direct the sperm, once the sperm has entered all the defense of the oocyte is striped away like the granulosa cells and the cell-surface hyluronidase which digest the intercellular cement. when at the corona the head of the sperm binds to the ZP3 glycoprotein and helps trigger the acrosomal reactions Extraembryonic membranes form from cells from the original cell mass. The amnion, yolk sac, allantois, and chorion make up these membranes. The amnion forms when certain cells transform themselves into a transparent membranous sac, which then fills with amniotic fluid. The amniotic fluid is the "water bag." The yolk sac forms from the primitive gut. The sac hangs from the ventral surface of the embryo. The yolk sac forms part of the digestive tube or gut, and also makes the early blood vessels and cells. The allantois is the base for the umbilical cord. The chorion forms from the inside surface of the trophoblast, and encloses the embryo. Placentation Placentation means that the placenta is or will be formed. The placenta is a temporary organ that nourishes the fetus while the woman is pregnant. It comes from the embryonic and endometrial tissues. the acrosomal reaction which involves the breakdown of the plasma membrane, and release of ascrosomal enzymes which digest holes through the zona pellucida. Organogenesis refers to the body organs and organ systems forming. This all occurs from the time in-between the zygote's first cell and by the time the fetus is one inch long. Organogenesis The beta protein acts first as it binds the receptor to the oocyte membrane. While the alpha makes sure that it enters the membrane. the result is the fusion of the egg and the sperm. the polyspermy entry of several sperm into an egg. but humans only have monospermy (1 sperm) The sperm causes calcium wave which pushes the cortical reaction. cortical reaction- which granules loctes inside the plasma membrane spill their enzymes into the extracellular space beneath the zona pellucida, male pronucleus its the nucleus swelling to about five times its normal size.

the female pronucleus when the ovum nucleus swells. the true momment of fertilization occurs as the maternal and paternal chromosomes combine and produces the fertilized egg, The first thing that happens is neurulation, or when the brain and spinal cord form. The notochord produces this, and then the ectoderm around the notochord forms the neural groove and then folds to form the neural folds. The top part of these folds form the neural tube. The front part of it becomes the brain and the back becomes the spinal cord. The neural crest makes up the rest of the nerves and tissue. The second thing that develops is the endoderm, or the body. The embryo starts out flat but then develops into a cylinder shape. The three layers fold under each other toward the central part of the body. The endoderm's edges fuse and form the primitive gut, which forms the beginning of the digestive system. From here, three different types of organ systems form- the GI tract, which is the pharynx and esophagus as well as the anal and oral opening. The next organ system is the respiratory tract, which comes from the foregut, which also has glands such as thyroid, thymus, and parathyroid, that develop from here. Finally, the midgut develops the pancreas and liver. The third and final system that develops is the mesoderm, or the notochord. The notochord is eventually called and replaced with the vertebral column. Mesodermal aggregates that pair on each side of the notochord are called somites. The somite is made of up three distinct parts. The first is the schlerotome which make the rib and vertebrae. The dermatome makes the skin in the back part of the body. The myotome help develop skeletal and limb muscles. Lateral from the somites, are the other parts of the mesoderm; the intermediate mesoderm, and the lateral mesoderm, which has paired plates called the somatic mesoderm and the splanchnic mesoderm. The intermediate mesoderm creates the gonads and the kidneys, while the lateral mesoderm does two different things. The somatic mesoderm inside the lateral mesoderm creates the skin in the ventral region, form limbs, and form serosa that lines ventral body cavity. The splanchnic mesoderm forms the heart, blood vessels, and connective tissues. This specific part of the mesoderm is what helps to develop the cardiovascular system. Weeks 9-12 9 Weeks The fetus' each weigh a fraction of an ounce, at about one inch long. All of their essential body parts are budded, and their muscles, nerves and organs are starting to work. Their hearts just divided into four chambers and their eyelids, earlobes, and other basic body structures are starting to form. The placenta is ready to take over its job of producing hormones. The mother's body is changing slowly but surely.
Anatomical Changes- Her uterus is growing, she has morning sickness, and is dealing with mood swings.
Metabolic Changes- Her placenta is now secreting human chorionic somatomammotropin (hCS) which helps to get the breasts ready to lactate after birth.
Physiological Changes- Her urinary system is creating more wastes because it has to consume the fetus' metabolic wastes as well as her own. 10 Weeks The fetus' are barely over an inch long, and they weigh less than 1/4th of an ounce, but all their organs and vital parts are developed. Also developing this week, are their nails and hair. Their arms and legs can bend and move now; and nerves from the spinal cord are stretching out around the body. Their brains are developing quickly and makes their tiny foreheads bulge. Their skin, although on the body, is translucent. The mother's body this week goes through several changes.
Anatomical Changes- Her uterus is the size of a grapefruit, and her breasts are constantly enlarging.
Metabolic Changes- Her maternal cells are producing less glucose and more fat. 11 weeks The baby at this time now has a heart beat
when the doctor uses a doppler stethoscope and
it is now possible to hear the rapid "shooshing of the heart :) the babies gentials are forming but the sex of the babies cant be determined yet. The mom at this stage is now the hormones are both
good and bad. Your hair, finger nails, and toenails are growing faster. acne and oilness of the skin may also be present. 12 weeks For the baby the baby at this age
all the parts of the baby are developing from the hair to the toes. The baby will keep developing throughout the pregnancy. at this point the miscarriage rate drops! :) mom to be:
there will be energy.
typical weight gain is 1.5 - 5 lbs

fathers might have sympathy pregnancy.
which is when they have the same symptoms
pregnancy. work cited


http://www.webmd.com/baby/guide/your-pregnancy-week-by-week-weeks-9-12 twins at 9 1/2 weeks twins at 10 1/2 weeks. Week 13 Twins at 16 weeks Week 13 is the last week the mom-to-be has to worry about morning sickness, fatigue, and miscarriage.
Week 14 is the beginning of a new trimester. Big number 2! The mommy is getting energy back and her breasts are feeling less tender, although now her muscles might ache from stretching to accommodate the two tadpoles.;) The uterus is now above her pelvic bone. The mother's hair may also now be thickening and shining, and she may also be getting hungry..
Week 15! Mom has probably gained around 5 pounds! Your nose may well often get nosebleeds, or be stuffy, simply because of your increased blood volume, increased blood flow to your mucous membranes, and hormonal changes. You may also have swollen gums (I know, I know) because of hormones..once again. Another down side to pregnancy hormones is that they may also cause you to have heartburn, gas, or indigestion.
During week 16, the mother's uterus extends above her pelvic bone in-between that and her naval, while the muscles and ligaments around it are thickening and stretching to accommodate. This trimester, the mother will start feeling less nauseous and less mood swings. She will also start to have "glowing" skin (positive side of pregnancy hormones). Sometime either now or in the next couple of weeks she will feel her babies move. Some other effects of pregnancy hormones include back aches, faster growth of your hair and nails, dry and sensitive eyes, and forgetfulness. As her uterus starts getting bigger and presses down on her intestines, she may get constipation. Also as her breasts fill up with milk to nourish the newborn, they will get bigger, and will be ready for breastfeeding by the end of the second trimester. (Week 27) Changes in the mother's body The babies are developing fingerprints this week, as well as vocal chords and their teeth (Under the gum; The teeth don't start showing until the babies are around 6-10 months old)! Their intenstines are also moving to their belly from the umbilical cord. Although their skin is practically transparent, their organs and veins are developed and fully visible. It's the end of the first trimester. The babies are now the size of a peach and weigh .81 oz each! Wow! The average length of a baby at this age is 2.9 inches. Week 14 This week, the babies are each the size of a lemon. They each weigh around 1.5 oz, and are about 3.4 inches long. Their limbs and body are growing to proportion now, and their little fingers are beginning to grasp. They are making facial expressions a lot this week, because their brains are sending lots of impulses to their bodies. They're also developing lanugo, or peach fuzz, all over their bodies, as well as producing bile and blood cells. A lot is happening! Week 15 Orange, prorange, grorange. No, there's nothing that rhymes with "orange", and no, you're not having a salad; but your babies are the size of an orange this week. 2.5 ounces and a whopping 4 inches long! Whoop whoop! They are kicking up a STORM on the inside, and their joints and limbs can all move now. They may possibly be hiccuping too. Their eyelids are fused shut, but they can sense light, and if it is too bright, they'll move away from it. The babies are also forming taste buds, although they can't taste much yet:). If you're lucky, you may be able to tell if it's (a) boy(s) or girl(s)! Yay! Week 16 The babies are, yes, another comparison..an avocado! Yay! 4.6 inches long each. Good and surprising news, Doctor can probably let you hear their heartbeats! Things that baby is developing on the outside- their ears are in their right position, head is more erect, growing toenails and hair, and, a vastly pumping heart!:) Yay! Weeks 13-16 Works Cited
13 weeks
http://pregnant.thebump.com/pregnancy-week-by-week/13-weeks-pregnant.aspx
http://www.babycenter.com/6_your-pregnancy-13-weeks_1102.bc
14 weeks
http://pregnant.thebump.com/pregnancy-week-by-week/14-weeks-pregnant.aspx
http://www.babycenter.com/6_your-pregnancy-14-weeks_1103.bc
15 weeks
http://pregnant.thebump.com/pregnancy-week-by-week/15-weeks-pregnant.aspx
http://www.babycenter.com/6_your-pregnancy-15-weeks_1104.bc
16 weeks
http://pregnant.thebump.com/pregnancy-week-by-week/16-weeks-pregnant.aspx
http://www.babycenter.com/6_your-pregnancy-16-weeks_1105.bc
Twins picture
http://www.babycenter.com/fetal-development-twins-images-16-weeks Weeks 17-20 Week 17 The babies are around 5 inches long and weigh about 5-6 ounces each; about the size of an onion. Their skeletons are becoming calcified, and they are starting to accumulate fat. The babies also have official fingerprints! Also, their sweat glands are developing and they can move their joints. If they hear a really loud sound, they are probably going to jump, and they may be seen sucking their thumbs in an ultrasound. How Mommy's Growing
Mom may be having vaginal discharges, itchy bump and breasts, and lots of weight gain. She also may be experiencing very strange dreams, just another one of those pregnancy hormone symptoms. She may be feeling a little off-balance as well, because her center of gravity is changing, as well as possibly experiencing dry eyes. Week 17- http://pregnant.thebump.com/pregnancy-week-by-week/17-weeks-pregnant.aspx
http://www.babycenter.com/6_your-pregnancy-17-weeks_1106.bc
"A New Human Being." Human Life Alliance 2012: 4. Print.
Week 18- http://www.babycenter.com/6_your-pregnancy-18-weeks_1107.bc
http://pregnant.thebump.com/pregnancy-week-by-week/18-weeks-pregnant.aspx
Week 19- http://www.babycenter.com/6_your-pregnancy-19-weeks_1108.bc
http://pregnant.thebump.com/pregnancy-week-by-week/19-weeks-pregnant.aspx
Week 20- http://www.babycenter.com/6_your-pregnancy-20-weeks_1109.bc
http://pregnant.thebump.com/pregnancy-week-by-week/20-weeks-pregnant.aspx Works Cited- Weeks 17-20 Week 18 Babies are growing! They are 5 1/2 inches long each, and weigh about 7 ounces and are growing really fast. They are moving around a lot, and their nerves are forming protective myelin sheaths. Their reproductive organs are fully formed and in place, and their blood vessels are visible through their skin. Their ears are also in the position they will remain. How mom is growing! Mommy is feeling very hungry now because the baby is growing so much and taking so much of her nutrients. Addition to that, her blood pressure is starting to get very low so she may want to start sleeping on her side, and may want to be careful when she gets up from laying down. She will have her second trimester ultrasound soon to confirm we are still having twins. She may be feeling swollen in her feet and hands, have leg cramps and backaches, and possibly some nosebleeds. She may also be seeing varicose veins because her circulatory system is under a lot of pressure. Week 19 The babies weigh about 8 1/2 ounces each and measures, from head to rump, about six inches.
The babies' sensory department is really developing too! Their brains are developing special places for the five senses- hearing, smelling, touch, seeing, and tasting. They can recognize the mom's voice now as well! Yay! Their arms and legs are now in correct proportions to the rest of their body, and their hair is growing! Their kidneys are also producing lots of urine now too, and their skin is forming a protective coating to protect them from the amniotic fluid; it is called vernix caseosa. SURPRISE!!!!! THE ULTRASOUND TOLD US THAT ONE OF OUR TWINS IS A GIRL, AND ONE IS A BOY!! Well, mommy should be very proud! She's already halfway through with pregnancy, and will get to meet her two little twins soon! Not only are the babies' growing, but the mother is too! The uterus keeps stretching to accommodate the twins, so she may feel pain in her lower abdomen. She also may start getting the 'pregnancy mask' or the dark patches of skin that come from an increase in pigment. She also may be feeling dizziness. Week 20!! Babies are growing!! The babies now have working taste buds, and are swallowing a lot of amniotic fluid! They weigh approximately 10.5 ounces and are about 6.5 inches long! (Wow!) Babies this week are also using their digestive system when they produce meconium, which is a substance you normally see with the baby's first dirty diaper. Congratulations, Mom! You are now officially halfway done!! Woo-hoo! You are probably seeing symptoms like this now that you're this far along: vaginal discharge (which will continue to increase until parturition), leg cramps, heartburn/indigestion (because the babies' are pushing into mommy's digestive system), high energy, swelling (put your feet up!!!;)), and also shortness of breath(the baby is not only crowding your digestive system and circulatory, but also your respiratory system!). Mom needs to be sure from now on that she's getting enough iron in her diet!! This is what our twins look like at week 20!! At 21 weeks, the babies are roughly 12.5 ounces and about 10.5 inches long each! The babies are preparing for life outside the womb, including their digestive system making meconium, which is the black substance you find the first time they have a dirty diaper. The girl twin already has her lifetime supply of eggs fully developed! Weeks 21-30 Works Cited 21 weeks:
http://pregnant.thebump.com/pregnancy-week-by-week/21-weeks-pregnant.aspx
http://www.babycenter.com/6_your-pregnancy-21-weeks_1110.bc?intcmp=timeline
22 weeks:
http://pregnant.thebump.com/pregnancy-week-by-week/22-weeks-pregnant.aspx
http://www.babycenter.com/6_your-pregnancy-22-weeks_1111.bc
23 weeks:
http://pregnant.thebump.com/pregnancy-week-by-week/23-weeks-pregnant.aspx
http://www.babycenter.com/6_your-pregnancy-23-weeks_1112.bc
24 weeks:
http://pregnant.thebump.com/pregnancy-week-by-week/24-weeks-pregnant.aspx
http://www.babycenter.com/6_your-pregnancy-24-weeks_1113.bc
25 weeks:
http://pregnant.thebump.com/pregnancy-week-by-week/25-weeks-pregnant.aspx
http://www.babycenter.com/6_your-pregnancy-25-weeks_1114.bc
26 weeks:
http://www.babycenter.com/6_your-pregnancy-26-weeks_1115.bc
http://pregnant.thebump.com/pregnancy-week-by-week/26-weeks-pregnant.aspx
27 weeks:
http://pregnant.thebump.com/pregnancy-week-by-week/27-weeks-pregnant.aspx
http://www.babycenter.com/6_your-pregnancy-27-weeks_1116.bc
28 weeks:
http://pregnant.thebump.com/pregnancy-week-by-week/28-weeks-pregnant.aspx
http://www.babycenter.com/6_your-pregnancy-28-weeks_1117.bc
29 weeks:
http://pregnant.thebump.com/pregnancy-week-by-week/29-weeks-pregnant.aspx
http://www.babycenter.com/6_your-pregnancy-29-weeks_1118.bc
30 weeks:
http://pregnant.thebump.com/pregnancy-week-by-week/30-weeks-pregnant.aspx
http://www.babycenter.com/6_your-pregnancy-30-weeks_1119.bc

Development pictures:
http://www.babycenter.com/fetal-development-twins-images-24-weeks
http://www.babycenter.com/fetal-development-twins-images-28-weeks Well mom, it's week 21, and you're almost done!! Things you may feel this week: Varicose veins may pop up since your growing uterus is putting more and more pressure on your inferior vena cava. You might be more prone to have them if people in your family have them too. Also you may notice spider veins, which are more near the feet. Other symptoms include: heartburn, indigestion, stretch marks, itchy skin, and Braxton Hicks Contractions. You may also notice breasts leaking. Week 22 Week 22! The babies may have hit a growth spurt! From last week, only being 12.5 ounces to this week possibly being up to 20.8 ounces! Wow! Also, the babies are probably around 10.5-11.8 inches long.:) The babies look more like little miniature newborns now because their eyes and lips are almost fully developed, (although their eyes still lack color)! These next few weeks, they're also getting some sleeping patterns! The babies are also developing little tiny teeth buds underneath their gums. Their lanugo, (fine hair on their bodies) is still there, and will remain until they get a layer of fat under their skin (this may take a couple weeks). Also their pancreas' are really undergoing major production to be ready for birth!:) Momma's changes
This week, mom is probably having increased libido, minor swelling in feet and hands, growth of hair, and may even experience some difficulty breathing! Also, from here on out, she will gain around .5 pounds every week, and will get more back aches. Other things to take note of include, stretch marks and an outtie, and more vaginal discharge. The little babies are forming little nipples and their faces are fully formed. They can even hear you talking and your heartbeat! Also their blood vessels are preparing their lungs for breathing outside the womb. Week 23 As the babies prepare for birth, so does the mom. As the weeks progress, she's probably feeling more and more Braxton Hicks Contractions. Also, she may be experiencing swollen ankles and feet, an aching back, and bleeding/swollen gums. Week 24 Babies' growth: Their skin that was once see-through is becoming more and more opaque and pink because their capillaries have just formed. Their lungs are also forming the branches that they need for parturition, and their brains are developing now! While babies are growing, the mom is also growing and changing. With her uterus the size of a soccer ball, she probably still has back cramps and swollen feet and ankles, and may be getting dehydrated (which may mean she'll get leg cramps). The stretch marks are still growing, and she may be getting a linea nigra, which is a dark line that goes up the center of her stomach. Mom will want to schedule a glucose screening test soon to make sure that she doesn't have too high of blood sugar. Also, her uterus is about the size of a soccer ball and is scooting up just past her belly button now. Week 25 Week 25 is here and the babies are each the size of a cauliflower. They weigh about a pound and a half, and measure about 13 1/2 inches. They know which way's up and which way's down by now, as well as getting more hair on their skin, which is now getting more fat underneath it. Since they're getting more fat under their skin, they are filling out and not so lean. Mommy is growing! She's almost done though! Just hang on! Since the babies are pushing on the mom's digestive system, she probably has a lot of constipation and hemorrhoids as well as heartburn. Since her hormones are also slowing down digestion, she probably will experience some gas and bloating. Another symptom is aches and pains all over, another thanks to the wonderful hormones in her body right now. Also, since her belly is getting really big, she may be having some trouble sleeping. :Our twins at 24 weeks! Week 26 They probably weigh around 1.5 to 2.5 pounds and are 13.6 to 14.8 inches long. The babies eyes are forming now, and soon they will open them. Eyelashes are now fully formed too! Yay!:) Their lungs are "breathing" in amniotic fluid (just for practice), and getting ready to encounter germs in the outside world by soaking up the mommy's antibodies! The boy twin's testicles are beginning to go down into his scrotum, but this will take about two weeks. The mom is still having trouble sleeping and will continue to until birth. She also is swelling in her hands and feet, and that too will continue., as well as her tendency to forget stuff (pregnancy brain), and her Braxton Hicks contractions. This week, the mom may be experiencing headaches from hormones, and higher blood pressure. Week 27 Mom is still having pretty much the same symptoms (leg cramps, back aches, stretch marks, constipation, and hemorrhoids), but may be getting thicker or more brittle hair and nails. She probably will experience "snissing" pretty soon, or peeing when she sneezes. :/ The babies are still practicing their breathing, and believe it or not, may also be getting hiccups!:) Their brains are also showing activity, and will continue to grow. Week 28 Welcome to the third trimester Mom! Hallelujah, you made it! What's on the agenda for this week? Well, the same old stuff, Braxton Hicks contractions, trouble sleeping, aches and pains, and possibly some trouble breathing as the babies get up into your lung space. From this week on, you may start to notice your breasts leaking. Don't worry. It's just the babies' first food, called colostrum. This trimester, you're likely to gain about 11 pounds, so be prepared! The babies are continuing to grow fat under their skin, and their lungs are not fully developed but are so close that if the babies were born now they would be able to breath through them! Here comes the exciting part! They can now blink their eyes and may be able to see light coming in through your womb!:) Our twins at week 28! Week 29! Mom is gonna be feeling a LOT of kicks these next few weeks, as well as the same symptoms as before, constipation, hemorrhoids, stretching belly (which may make it itch), trouble sleeping, headaches, and leg and pelvic pain! Wow! On top of that, she's probably gonna have to go to the bathroom every five minutes cause babies are pushing down on her bladder. She still will have those varicose veins that show up. :/ Not fun! The babies are getting cramped, so you may feel them kick a lot more these next few weeks! What helps with them already being cramped is that their energy is getting pumped up because of all the fat deposits under their skin now! Their muscles and lungs are still continuing to grow, and their heads are growing bigger and bigger so that their growing brain still fits. Week 30!!! Mom is gonna get some more heartburn this week, which isn't going to be helping her sleep time, since she's already losing a bunch, and because she's losing all that sleep, she is going to be REALLY tired. (Take lots of naps!! Hubby will be very glad you do;) ) When you do sleep, you are liable to get lots of strange and very vivid dreams thanks to your hormones going wacko! You're probably feeling even more shortness of breath, and will probably get a few (haha) mood swings! :( This does not at all contribute to the fact that you are losing sleep and are liable to be grouchy anyways. But hang tight, mom! You're almost there! The babies weigh around 3 pounds now! Their skin is still getting fat underneath, which means it'll be nice and smooth, but while their skin is getting smoother, their brain is getting wrinklier! It's making room for all of that new brain tissue growing! Now their muscles are so developed, that they are strong enough to grasp a finger! Woo-hoo! Their eyesight is not good enough to be able to see yet (it's only 20/400) so they keep their eyes closed most often. 31 weeks The babies' are 16 inches long and weigh about 3 pounds! They can turn their heads to look at things, and they are continually getting fatter because their skin is getting fat accumulated underneath it. They are moving a lot as well, which just means that they are exercising their muscles for use outside the womb! Yay! Also, all five of their senses are developed and working! The mom is probably feeling those Braxton-Hicks Contractions get stronger, and may also be seeing her breasts leaking colostrum. She may be out of breath, and have some back aches. She will be experiencing dry nails and may feel like she has to go the the bathroom every five seconds! She also will continue to have difficulty sleeping. 32 Weeks The babies are about the size of a squash, and are getting bigger all the time. They are probably facing the head-down position now in preparation for birth. They are also continually getting fatter to prepare themselves as well. The mom is still having Braxton-Hicks contractions, heartburn, back aches, shortness of breath, weight gain, and growing breasts, but now is experiencing even more. Such as, vaginal discharge and larger nipples. 33 weeks The babies are roughly 5 pounds, and 18 inches long. Their bones are getting harder now, and they are also able to coordinate their breathing with sucking/swallowing (probably because of that last major brain growth spurt) ;) They can also keep their eyes open! Mommy is still feeling forgetful, and still has headaches, shortness of breath and probably back aches too! Now, on top of all this, (I know, I know, but you're almost done) you are probably feeling overheated because your metabolic rate is REALLY high. 34 weeks The babies are almost ready!! (Hallelujah, right??) Well, they can hear everything that goes on outside the womb, so the experts say that you should sing to your babies so that they are more soothed outside the womb when they hear that song. Also, they are practicing their urination for outside the womb right now by urinating about a pint a day! OK, future momma, here goes. You may have blurry vision, swelling, constipation, hemorrhoids, and, (here's a no-brainer), fatigue. Also, since the babies are moving lower and lower, you probably find yourself having to use the bathroom more and more. Other than that, it's the same ol', same ol'. :/ Big whoop, huh? 35 Weeks The babies hearing is fully developed now, (as well as their kidneys and liver), but they will probably be able to hear high-pitched noises better. Although the girl twin already has developed the reproductive organs that need developing right now, the boy twin's testes have probably just about landed in their correct position. Also, they are VERY cramped in this limited space, so you're liable to feel all of their movements, no matter how many. They are just about finished with physical development, now they are just mainly gaining weight. (So don't worry about those couple extra pounds creeping up) Mom will probably feel an increase in the Braxton-Hicks Contractions this week, some more constipation, back aches and other useless-to-mention aches and pains, as well as, yep! you guessed it, constant (or so it feels) urinating. 36 weeks Ok, update on the kids......;)
They are swallowing the substances that have covered them so far, including the vernix caseosa, which, (trust me) will make a reappearance soon. They are getting close to being able to breath on their own now, but don't worry, everything else works fine;) Since their skin is losing it's covering, it's very soft, and getting softer..(you've heard the term,
"smoother than a baby's bottom"?) Alrighty then. We're at 36 weeks. You're in the home stretch. At the end of this week, you're baby will be full-term! Whoo-hoo! Unfortunately, there are some down sides. For instance, since the babies are taking up so much room in your belly, you probably aren't able to eat a normal size meal, which is totally ok! You probably, if seeing that you can't eat a big/normal meal, you should switch to smaller meals that come more frequently. For instance, instead of eating three big meals a day, switch to smaller meals that come 5-6 times a day. Ok, time for some good news (well, semi-good news, anyways)..The babies will probably start "dropping" soon, which means they start to drop more into your pelvis area. This may help with those heartburn and breathing problems you've been having! Although, when they do drop, you may feel uncomfortable :/ (sorry). Also, you're probably gonna have difficulty sleeping (who could with a bowling ball, two in this case, inside them?) and probably some more swelling. 37 Weeks Alright! Full-Term babies....coming up! This week, the babies are pretty much just getting ready for parturition. Some basic moves such as breathing, sucking their thumbs, gripping, and blinking are called for. Also, they are getting real prepared to leave mom and dad a big present in their first dirty diaper! (I know what you're thinking) Yes, it's called meconium, and comes from all the stuff they have been swallowing since a couple of weeks ago. Other than that, they are about 6.5-7 pounds now, and are about 19 inches long! Multiply this by two, and this is probably what your little twinsy-winsies look like this week. BTW, have you figured out names?? OK mom, you are almost done! The symptoms you will see this week are, the feeling you need to "nest." This is where you just have to clean everything obsessively! (Just hold on and don't reach for the leaves outside. Those are SUPPOSED to be dirty) Some more heartburn is called for, but hey, it's not as much! You will see some more stretch marks from here on out, as well as some vaginal discharge and possibly spotting. Again, with this whole bowling ball idea, you're probably tossing and turning a LOT these days. Don't worry though; this too shall pass. 38 weeks The babies are growing and growing. They are losing the vernix caseosa still, and may already have some hair! Get a grip! I know the babies are! ;) they can grab and hold stuff now! This week, the mom may be feeling what it known as a "lightning crotch." This is where you feel sensations in the lower parts of your pelvic area and even in your legs as the babies bump up against all kinds of nerves down there. The Braxton-Hicks Contractions are still coming, as well as all the other regular symptoms. But there is something a little different on the agenda. This week or sometime in a couple weeks, you will see a discharge that is bloody, and mucousy coming out. This is known as "bloody show", and all it means is that labor is imminent. Also a "Be Prepared" sign your body is giving you for labor is the diarrhea you may be experiencing. 39 Weeks The babies are and will continue to grow and accumulate fat under their skin for another week or so. They are probably able to flex and move their legs and arms now and if you were able to see inside the womb, you would probably see that their nails extend past the edges of their fingertips. I feel good.....I knew that I would......I feel good.......I knew that I would.....so good...so good...I got You.........! Ok mom to be, you are gonna be done in a couple of weeks! In fact, most of the things you need to watch for from now on is false labor pains vs. real labor pains, and your water breaking. The other symptoms (heartburn, constipation, blah, blah, blah) are still there, but you probably aren't as worried about them anymore because you are so excited about meeting your baby! Also, if you feel the need to speed-clean everything, do it! It may help bring on those pains that only mean one thing- a tiny human being!
So first, the difference in false labor and real labor is that in false labor the pains normally start in the front of the body rather than at the top of the uterus as they do during the real deal. False labor usually lets up when you move around or switch positions.
Your water breaking.....uh, what exactly does that mean? Well, the "water" is really amniotic fluid, and when it breaks, it means it,..well,..it broke. It means you may be feeling anything from a slight trickle of water to a gush coming right down your body. 40 WEEKS! :D Well CONGRATULATIONS little momma! I knew you could do it!:) Some things to watch out for when the babies are born....
You may be sore (duh, you just pushed two 7-8 pound babies outside your body)
You will probably have leaking (the breasts leak milk even when the babies aren't attached)
and possibly even some constipation...:/ sorry bout that.
40 weeks! By this time, the babies are on their way! As they go through the birth canal, the soft bones in their head overlap each other so the babies can squeeze through the cervix. The babies are now going to get used to life outside the womb. They will probably sleep most of the time, but wake up every two or three hours to eat. Second, they have been in the fetal position so long, they may still be curled up in that position. But don't worry, that's just temporary. They will probably lose about 10% of their birth weight within the week, only to gain it back by the second. They are now communicating by way of crying, hiccuping, and other things rather than kicking now. :) They can see your face, but can see it best only about 8-12 inches away. No more, no less. If you're looking to getting them some toys, you might try toys with lots of colors (especially bright ones) and ones that make sounds. Extrauterine Life Lactation Breastfeeding is the best milk for your baby at this stage of the game. It's rich in nutrients and vitamins that the baby needs, and it can also benefit you! When do you start? The minute you get to hold the babies is a great time to begin. when they are first born, your body produces colostrum which helps keep your baby free of any infections. Then, after a little while, it starts changing to regular breastmilk, which is a little different than colostrum, but it still gets them important nutrients.

How do I do it?
When you start to breastfeed, you turn the babies' bodies toward you (feet facing you) and pull them in (may be easiest to do this part one at a time), bringing their upper lip to your nipple. They will open their mouth wide. When they do that, pull them onto your breast.

Are they doing it right?
If the babies are doing it right, their mouths should cover as much of the areola as possible. (Not just the nipple). It shouldn't hurt, but if it does, then you have to try it again.

How often should I do it?
For newborns, every eight to twelve times a day for about 20-30 minutes.

What do I eat?
You will need 200-500 more calories a day than normal, so take a quick snack with you some places. Weeks 31-40
twins picture- https://www.google.com/search?hl=en&site=imghp&tbm=isch&source=hp&biw=1192&bih=568&q=newborn+twins+boy+and+girl&oq=newborn+twins+boy+and+girl&gs_l=img.3..0l3j0i5l2.1890.7459.0.7624.30.23.2.5.5.0.225.2744.7j13j2.22.0...0.0...1ac.1.12.img.OQhb4R8I4ao#imgrc=nfLffg12cC0-1M%3A%3B8lwun3ghe-zeDM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.fusionfotografix.com%252Fwp-content%252Fuploads%252F2012%252F03%252FWinston-Salem-Newborn-Baby-Photographer(pp_w639_h426).jpg%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.fusionfotografix.com%252Ftwins-greensboro-newborn-baby-photographer%252F%3B639%3B426
the week information- http://www.babycenter.com and http://pregnant.thebump.com the b
the video-
extrauterine life- http://pregnant.thebump.com/baby-month-by-month/0-month-old-baby.aspx
lactation- http://www.babycenter.com/0_breastfeeding-getting-started_465.bc Works Cited
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