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Socio - cultural Life of the Early Filipinos

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edriel garcia

on 23 October 2013

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Transcript of Socio - cultural Life of the Early Filipinos

Socio - cultural Life of the Early Filipinos
Members:Eric John Sahagun,Edriel Garcia,Vince Villaruz,
and Ishrael Guzman
Clothing and Ornaments
Economic Life
Language and System of Writing
Music,arts and Sports
Religious Beliefs
Before the coming of the Spaniards to the Philippines the natives already wore clothes and personal ornaments
Clothing and Ornaments 
The men wore short-sleeved and collarless jackets, whose length reached slightly below the waist.
A piece of cloth wrapped around the head, called a putong, served as a head gear. The kind of putong one wore was important.
Examples of PUTONG
Women Clothing
The women’s upper garment was a sleeved jacket, called a baro. Over their skirts (saya or patadyong) was wrapped a strip of cloth called tapis
It is like a malong but in checkered design. It has a variety of uses. Primarily, women used it as a tucked-in skirt topped by a kimona. It was used as a mobile, personalized bathroom because in the olden days, women take a bath and wash their clothes in the river.
DOMESTIC TRADE= Different barangays from different regions and islands were made possible using boats
FOREIGN TRADE=was carried on with countries like Borneo,China,Japan,Cambodia,Java and Siam(Thailand)
Others means of livelihood were shipbuilding weaving,poultry,raising,mining,weaving and lumbering
Due to the country's long coastline and bodies of water, the early settlers always had an abundant catch of fishes, crustaceans, shrimps and shells. They used three-pointed spears, cages and fishnets in fishing
When the Spaniards arrived, they found the early Filipinos' ship to be of excellent quality. They also learned that the Filipinos, specifically the Visayans, used a compass similar to that found among the Chinese and the people of Borneo.

It is believed that the Banaue rice terraces may have been built starting 10,000 B.C. which proves the early Filipinos' skills in agriculture. Agriculture was the main source of livelihood in the pre colonial Philippines. There was an abundance of sugar cane, coconut, rice, cotton, hemp, and many species of fruits and vegetables
Filipinos believed in the immortality of the soul and life after death
There was no common language in the Philippine archipelago when the Spanish arrived in the 16th century.
The three major linguae francae were Kapampangan, Ilocano, and Visayan.
There are some 120 to 175 languages in the Philippines, depending on the method of classification.
November 13, 1936, Commonwealth act No. 184 created the National Language Institute and tasked it to make a study and survey of each existing native language
The three main contenders were Tagalog, Visayan, and Ilocano.
On 14 July 1936, the Surián ng Wikang Pambansâ (National Language Institute) selected Tagalog as the basis of the national language
Katalonan / Babaylan
Baybayin was noted by the Spanish priest Pedro Chirino in 1604 and Antonio de Morga in 1609 to be known by most, and was generally used for writings,
Writing System
The writing system is an abugida system using consonant-vowel combinations. Each character, written in its basic form, is a consonant ending with the vowel “A”. To produce consonants ending with the other vowel sounds, a mark is placed either above the consonant (to produce an “E” or “I” sound) or below the consonant (to produce an “O” or “U” sound). The mark is called a kudlit. The kudlit does not apply to stand-alone vowels. Vowels themselves have their own glyphs. There is only one symbol for D or R as they were allophones in most languages of the Philippines, wherein D fell in initial, final, pre-consonantal or post-consonatal positions and R in intervocalic positions.
Writing technique
The early Filipinos wrote on many different materials; leaves, palm fronds, tree bark and fruit rinds, but the most common material was bamboo
3 points

1 point

1 points



2 points

2 points

2 points

1 point

Indigenous/Ethnic Music

Social-Cultural life of the early Filipinos

Ethnic Music – the traditional and typically anonymous music that is an expression of the life of people in a community

Definition of Ethnic

10% percent of the population retained and practiced mainly in three regions: Northern Luzon, the Central Philippine islands of Mindoro , Palawan and the southern islands of Mindanao and Sulu.

Music style varies region to region
Often the music is Polyphonic & uses highly interlocking repeated patterns.
Most musical instruments are Percussion Instruments Some belong to the wind and string family


Philippine indigenous music before the colonial era was largely functional. Expressed either instrumentally or vocally or a combination of both , music was deeply integrated with the activities of the natives.
The ancient Filipinos had music practically for all occasion , for every phase of life , from birth to death

Ethnic groups in the Mindanao
Tausug in the Sulu Acrhipelago is known for their sophisticated musical repotoire called Kulintang
The main instruments used for Kulintang is similar to the gongs used in Indonesia.
Often the music in Mindanao is similar to the tribes in visayas

Southern Style




Southern Instruments

Ethnic music in the Philippines often serves as a musical accompanyment for various traditions such as religious ceremonies and rituals.

Social-Cultural life of the early Filipinos

The early Filipinos were artistic people. Nipa hut is an example of Filipino architecture. Filipinos also showed artistry in the building of various types of boats. Tattooing was a form of painting. 
Sculpture was a favorite art form. Clay, wood and gold statues have been unearthed by archaeologists. Handles of weapons and tools showed beautiful carvings. 

Sculpture is three-dimensional artwork created by shaping or combining hard materials, typically stone such as marble, metal, glass, or wood, or plastic materials such as clay, textiles, polymers and softer metals.


Carving one of the techniques used in sculpture.

Bul-ul are carved Anito figures of the Ifugaos: these represent their ancestral spirit and granary gods.

Ifugao sculpture

Shown above are the most well-known of the old designs, the Sarimanok. The figure represents a fowl with wings, feathered tail, and a head decorated with ornaments of scrolled and painted motif of leaves, spirals, and feather-like forms.
It usually stands on a fish and another one hangs from its beak. The wooden figure, usually perched atop a bamboo pole, stands among decorative flags during weddings and other festive occasions.




Northern Instruments

Ethnic People of Central Cordilleras of Luzon
also play music with the use of gongs , but unlike those of the sothern repotoire , the gongs , called Gangsa , are unbossed and originate from mainland Asia

Northern Style

Ang Hagabi ay isang upuang kahoy ng mga Ifugao na sumisimbolo sa panlipunang katayuan ng isang mamamayan.
Ang orihinal na anyo nito ay tinatawag na ginulgulding na ang ibig sabihin ay "kagaya ng kambing", sapagkat sa dalawang dulo ng upuan ay mayroong nakaukit na animo'y ulo ng kambing.

The Panolong carved end beam of the Torogon.

Objects that are first shaped of wet clay, then hardened by baking



The Manunggul Jar is a National Treasure of the Philippines.
Ang Tapayan sa Manunggul ay isang banga na ginamit sa paglilibing ng mga sinaunang tao sa Palawan noong 890-710 BK.
The jar was found in Chamber A of the Tabon Cave, one of the Manunggul caves in Palawan.
The jar is dated from about 2800 years before the present. It was found by Robert Fox and Miguel Santiago.

Weaving means to make cloth and other objects. Threads or strands of material are passed under and over each other.

Okir a datu (gentlemen’s design) The scroll is the dominant feature in the men’s work composed of various spiral forms.
In contrasts, the zigzag and angular forms are the dominating motifs in women’s geometric art – okir a bay (ladies’ design).

Okir Design


Physical Ornaments

Physical ornamentation can be categorized to three areas specifically the use of traditional costumes (textile), jewelries and tattoos. The designs vary depending on the location, users and function of the ornaments.


Filipino bawisak earrings

Traditional Ifugao tribe (Northern Luzon, Philippines) bead and shell bawisak earrings.
The bottom shell designs have been described as either representing butterflies
or a certain item of male generative anatomy.


The B'laan are one of the indigenous peoples of Southern Mindanao in The Philippines.
They are famous for their brassworks, beadwork and t'nalak weave.
The people of these tribes wear colorful embroidered native costumes and beadwork accessories.

The Philippine Tribal Costumes

The Kalinga are called the “peacocks of the north”
because of their attention to appearance and dressing.
Kalinga is a landlocked province of northern Cordillera, Philippines.
“Kalinga” means enemy, a name that the bordering inhabitants
called this tribe because of their headhunting attacks.
The name stuck and became accepted by the natives themselves.


The T'boli distinguish themselves from other Tribal Groups
by their colorful clothes, bracelets and earrings,
this tribe is famous for their complicated beadwork,
wonderful woven fabrics and beautiful brass ornaments.


The Bagobo are proud people with proto Malayan features.
They have ornate traditions in weaponry and other metal arts.
They are noted for their skill in producing brass articles through the ancient lost-wax process.
These people also weave abacca cloths of earth tones and make baskets
that are trimmed with beads, fibers and horse's hair.


Social-Cultural life of the early Filipinos

Patintero or haring diego - try to cross my line without letting me touch or catch you. A Filipino variation of "tag". No.of player/s:There are five members 5 in each group.

Tumbang preso or presohan (tumba-patis in most Visayan regions) is a popular Filipino street game. Like other Filipino traditional games, members take the following rules: one as the “taya”, someone who takes the rule of a-player-at-stake and holds the responsibility of the Lata (tin can), and; the two others as the players striking.
The game is performed by having the players a “pamato” (which is ones own slipper) used for striking the tin that is held beside the taya.

Luksong-Baka (lit. jumps over the cow) is a popular variation of Luksong Tinik. One player crouches while the other players jump over him/her. The crouching player gradually stands up as the game progresses, making it harder for the other players to jump over him/her.Then he will be the it if he dangled it the baka. It will repeat again and again until the players declare the player or until the players decide to stop the game.it is the Filipino version of leap frog

Luksong-tinik (lit. jump over the thorns of a plant) two players serve as the base of the tinik (thorn) by putting their right or left feet together (soles touching gradually building the tinik). A starting point is set by all the players, giving enough runway for the players to achieve a higher jump, so as not to hit the tinik. Players of the other team start jumping over the tinik, followed by the other team members.

Piko is the Philippine variation of the game hopscotch. The players stand behind the edge of a box, and each should throw their cue ball. The first to play is determined depending on the players' agreement (e.g. nearest to the moon, wings or chest). Whoever succeeds in throwing the cue ball nearest to the place that they have agreed upon will play first. The next nearest is second, and so on.

Chinese Garter Two people hold both ends of a stretched garter horizontally while the others attempt to cross over it. The goal is to cross without having tripped on the garter. With each round, the garter's height is made higher than the previous round (the game starts with the garter at ankle-level, followed by knee-level, until the garter is positioned above the head). The higher rounds demand dexterity, and the players generally leap with their feet first in the air, so their feet cross over the garter, and they end up landing on the other side. Also, with the higher levels, doing cartwheels to "cross" the garter is allowed.

Holen You should hold the ball called holen in your hand then throw it to hit the players ball out of the playing area. Who ever got the most marbles win the game. You can also win the game by eliminating your opponent by aiming and hitting his marble. You have to be sharp shooter to be a winner.

Iring-Iring - go round and round until the hanky drops - After the it is determined, he or she goes around the circle and drops the handkerchief behind a person.

Langit-lupa (lit. heaven and earth) one it chases after players who are allowed to run on level ground (lupa) and clamber over objects (langit). The "It" may tag players who remain on the ground, but not those who are standing in the "langit" (heaven). The tagged player then becomes "It" and the game continues.

Pitik-Bulag this game involves 2 players. One covers his eyes with a hand while the other flicks a finger (pitik) over the hand covering the eyes. The person with the covered eyes gives a number with his hand the same time the other does. If their numbers are the same, then they exchange roles in the game. Another version of this is that the blind (bulag) will try to guess the finger that the other person used to flick him/her.

Taguan - hide and seek in America. What is unique in Tagu-Taguan compared to its counterpart, hide and seek, is that this game is usually played at sunset or at night as a challenge for the it to locate those who are hiding under the caves in Laguna, Cavite which is a popular site for pro taguan players. The it needs to sing the following before he/she start seeking:

Tinikling A game variant of the tinikling dance, with the same goal - for the players to dance nimbly over the clapping bamboo "maw" without having their ankles caught.

Ubusan lahi - clannicide - One tries to conquer the members of a group (as in claiming the members of another's clan). The tagged player from the main group automatically becomes an ally of the tagger. The more players, the better. The game will start with only one it and then try to find and tag other players. Once one player is tagged, he or she then will help the it to tag the other players until no other participant is left. Some people also know this as Bansai.

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