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History of the Internet and the WWW

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Mattan Romano

on 27 September 2013

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Transcript of History of the Internet and the WWW

The four computers on the ARPANet project were connected using Packet Switching
Information is broken down and sent in pieces known as packets
On the receiving side, computer reassembles the packets to create the entire message
The network is used as the medium for the message transfer
Computers Before 1957
The first mainframe computer
Able to handle only one task at a time
Computers were so large that programmers couldn't work on them directly
October 4, 1957
Midst of the Cold War
Soviet Union launched first unmanned satellite called Sputnick
1962
America concerned with the threat of nuclear war
Wanted easier means of internal communication
Needed information stored in more than one location
Created the Department of Defense's Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA)
1967-ARPANet-First Form of Internet
Linked the first four computers
UCLA (University of California Los Angeles)
UCSB (University of Santa Barbara)
Stanford Research Institute
University of Utah
1971
First File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
The rules for how computers exchange files on the Internet
The History of the Internet
and the
World Wide Web
Researched and Presented by:
Mattan Romano
Rachel Urcinas
This presentation explores the following topics:
The Internet
When
Why
How
The first network
Modern Internet
The future of the Internet
The World Wide Web (WWW)
What
When
Why
How
The difference between the WWW and the Internet
1971-1972
First email developed
Universities could communicate over the National Science Foundation (NSF) network
Originally email was restricted for university use only
1980
Internet use spreads from coast to coast
1980's
The Internet has grown to include:
Electronic mail
Electronic news
Remote login
ARPANet has over 1000 computers on its network
High speed transmission
Increases the speed of the Internet
Computer worms and computer hacking become a concern for the computer society
Robert Morris
1988 releases a nondestructive worm across the ARPANet network
Causes problems for 6000-60,000 hosts
Tim Berners-Lee, an employee at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics, suggested that documents become available to authorized individuals through Internet-linked computers.
The WWW is a way of getting information by using the connection the Internet provides.
It uses the HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol) to make sure any computer can get to Web pages no matter the computer's hardware, operating system, browser, or location.
Other Protocols Are:
The HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language)
The URL (Uniform Resource Locator)
The HTTPS (Hyper Text Transport Protocol (Secure))
The difference between the Internet and the WWW is...

The Internet connects computers while the WWW uses the Internet to make the information accessible.
The WWW connects to the Internet by using browsers which in turn display the Web Pages using the correct protocol. Browsers like:
In 1989,
1978
Internet Protocol (IP)
Labels packets that are sent and received
IP combined with TCP to create the TCP/IP
Basic Internet protocol
The way computers connect to the Internet today
1972-74
The network expands to 15 computers using TCP
Firefox
Google Chrome
Internet Explorer
1990
Government decided to make the Internet private
Telecommunication and research companies own network hardware
Today, most of the Internet networks are owned and operated by commercial companies
There are two types of computer networks
Distributed network
Centralized network
Distributed Network
Many routes to the same computer
If one route fails, the information can travel over other routes
Centralized Network
Portions of the network are connected by a single route
If route fails, it can isolate portions of the network
1984-Introduction of DNS
Domain Name System (DNS)
Translates between domain names and the IP addresses of devices connected to the Internet
He started the making of the Web with
his own program called Enquire, which
helped him remember connections
between people and projects in the lab.
The web pages are linked to each other through hyperlinks
Lee wrote the Hyper Transfer Text Protocol (HTTP) and designed a way for documents to have addresses on the Internet.
This presentation explores how the Internet evolved from the first four computer ARPANet network to the World Wide Web of today. In the beginning, the communication among computers was all text based. In time, the addition of Protocols like TCP/IP, HTTP, and HTML transformed the network to the modern Internet and World Wide Web. This technology has enabled the exchange and sharing of documents, pictures, music, and videos. The Internet has become a basic necessity of life, enabling individuals and businesses to communicate and perform online transactions and online shopping.
We hope you enjoyed our presentation.
Introduction to Computers and Applications
Section 2
TA: Apoorva Chaudhari
Spring 2012
Diagram of ARPANet
Distributed Network
Centralized Network
Full transcript