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History of Pharmacy

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Aarti Walia

on 29 August 2014

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Transcript of History of Pharmacy

History of Pharmacy
{ The Age of Antiquity 5000 BCE - 499 CE Continued}
Key terms:

{The Middle Ages 500-1500 CE}
During the Middles Ages pharmacy was practiced & preserved in the monasteries
Late in the 18th century, Arabs established th first apothecaries
Not until 1240 CE, in sicily & Southern Italy that pharmacy as seperated from medicine
{ Renaissance 1500-1600 CE }
This period was filled with scientific advancements, renewed interest in culture and an increase in exploration leading to the discovery of the New World
{ First Anglo- Saxon Organization of Pharmacists}
{ The first Apothecary in the American Colonies }
In the British isles, the Guild of Grocers, shopkeepers who monopolized and maintained jurisdiction over apothecaries.
In 1617, King James 1 granted them a charter to form a separate company called, "Master, Wardens & Society of the Art & Mystery of the Apothecaries of the City of London
John Winthrop, the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony learned from the English apothecaries and physicians after he was unable to bring some to the colonies.
By 1640, he began selling apothecary products derived from native plants and imported drugs.
{ The 18th Century }
{ The 19th Century }
{The 19th Century Continued}
{ The 20th Century }
{The 20th Century Continued}
{ The Future}
{ 18th Century Continued }
Aarti Walia Brooke Butler
Apothecary: term tht refers to the early practice of pharmacy
Compounding: Producing a drug by combining 2 or more ingredients
Third generation physician, Philopsopher, and professor
Known as the father of medicine
It was in Florence, Italy that the idea of a pharmacopoeia came up. A pharmacopoeia is a listing of pharmaceutical products that also contains their formulas and methods of preparation
Period of impressive scientific discoveries & advancements in the field of medicine.
The 20th century saw the role of modern American pharmacists evolve through 4 eras: the traditional era, the scientific era, the clinical era, and the pharmaceutical era.
The Traditional Era
During the 18th century, American colonies united in order to defeat the British empire, allowing them to recieve independence.
This ultimately created the United States.
From the early 1900s through the 1930s, pharmacists continued the traditional pratice of pharmacy, which they formulated and dispensed drugs created from natural sources
The Scientific Era
In the early 1930s, the area of pharmacy began to take a more scientific based approach:
New drugs
Scientific testing
New regulations
Mass production of synthetic drugs and antibiotics
Both world wars caused this massive shift in this pratice
{ America's First Female Pharmacist }
In 1729, Christopher Marshall, an immigrant from Ireland established an apothecary shop in Philadelphia
This shop grew to become: a leading retail store, one of the original large-scale chemical manufacturers, a training school for those who wanted to be pharmacists, and a supply depot during the war
The management of this operation, over time, was taken over by Marshall's granddaughter.
This, in turn, made her America's first female pharmacist

{ America's First Hospital }
The Clinical Era
In the 1960s, pharmacy again shifted in pratice
Pharmascists were now expected to dispense medications, drug information, warnings, advice, and suggestions to their patients.
Pharmacy transformed into a cognitive-based profession.
The Pharmaceutical Care Era
Pharmascists becamed focused on ensuring positive outcomes for drug related therapies.
Pharmaceutical Care:
Combination of formulation and dispensing of drugs (traditional era)
A scientific approach to evidence and outcome-based results (scientific era)
Provision of expanded consultations & cognitive-based services (clinical era)
America's first hospital, Pennsylvania Hospital, was established in Philadelphia in 1751 after being founded by Benjamin Franklin
The hospital's pharmacy began doing operations in 1752
John Morgan, Johnathan Roberts successor, influence on pharmacy and medicine made important changes in the development of the professional pharmacy
Morgan supported the use of written prescriptions
He later also advocated for independent practice of pharmacy
{ America's First Apothecary General }
Andrew Craigie of Boston became the first man with the ranking of a commissioned pharmaceutical officer in the American army
He was present at the Battle of Bunker Hill, less than two months after being appointed by the Massachusetts Committee of Safety, helping those with injuries and ailments
His duties inclued procurement, storage, manufacturing, and distribution of the Army's drugs
Craigie developed an early wholesaling and manufacturing company of pharmaceutical drugs
Throughout the 1800's, the practive of American pharmacy was being established for the future.
{ America's First College of Pharmacy }
{The Age of Antiquity 5000 BCE-499 CE}
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy was established 1821
It came to be to end threats of degeneration of the practice of pharmacy and a discriminatory division by the University of Pennsylvania medical facility
A protest meeting of pharmacists was held in February 1821 in Philadelphia
A second meeting on March 13 allowed pharmacists to vote and conclude to form the institution
The college itself came to have a self-policing board
Ancient Humans
By trial and error, humans learned which plant & mineral remedies worked best
Ancient Mesopotamia
Babylon provided the earliest known record of apothecary.
Ancient China
{ The American Pharmaceutical Association }
In OCtober 1852, 20 delegates of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy in addition to Daniel B. Smith and William Procter, Jr., founded the APhA
This organization was to meet the needs for better correspondence among the pharmacy community, regulation in instruction, and quality control over foreign drugs
Membership was open to all who followed their Constitution and Code of Ethics
Chinese Emperor Shen Nung wrote pen T-sao, which had recorded 365 drugs.
Ancient Egypt
The Papyrus Ebers, written in 1500 BCE, is a collection of 800 prescriptions that mentions 700 unique drugs.
Ancient India
More than 2000 drugs are recordd in the Charaka Sambita
A work of multiple authors and written in Sanskrit
Ancient Greece
{ William Procter, Jr. }
Procter, Jr. is known as the father of American Pharmacy
He graduated from the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy in 1837
He eventually operated a retail pharmacy, conducted as the professor of pharmacy for 20 yeaars, was a leader in founding the APhA, and served as the fellowships first secretary and later as the president
He also served 30 years on the USP Revision Committee, and for 20 years was the editor of a pharmaceutical newspaper
Procter, Jr. passed away in 1874
Terra Sigilata or "sealed earth," was the first therapeutic agent to bear a trademark.
Originated prior to 500 BCE off the Lemnos island.
Theophrastus, known as the father of botany, wrote extensively on the medical qualities of herbs
{ The United States Pharmacopoeia }
The first United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) was the first book of drug standards to be accepted by all of America
This version was published in 1820
By 18777, the discontinuation of was imminent because of a lack of interest by the pharmacy community
Dr. Edward R. Squibb, a manufacturing pharmacist and physician took the problem to the APhA
This formed the USP Committee on Revision, which continues to be published today
{ Gregor Mendel }
Gregor Mendel is known as the father of modern genetics
As an Austrian priest and scientist, he showed that traits inherited follow specific laws
He discovered this through his study of inherited traits in pea plants
Mendel's works' significance was recognized after his research was reclaimed at the 1900s
{ Biotechnology }
Biotechnology is a technique that uses living things to make or modify specific products
Modern biotechnology has expanded the number of different drugs that can be created using live organisms
Most are manufactured through recombinant DNA technology
This process is where a human gene capable of enabling the production of a specific protein is infused into a living organism that is then cultivated in a lab
The organism integrates the gene into its structure on a cellular level and begins producing the drug
The proteins produced are very fragile and can only be utilized by injection
Some of the pharmaceuticals produced now were once made differently, but most are not producible by other means
Currently, the FDA has approved of 254 biotechnology drugs
{ Pharmacogenomics }
Pharmacogenomics is the study of individual genetic differences in response to drug therapy
This study aims to develop rational means to enhance drug therapy, with keeping ones genetic structure in mind, to ensure maximum efficiency with minimal negative effects
The doctor is able to see whether you could benefit from an alternative drug without the hassle of strange and unnecessary reactions
This would save time, money, and the health of people in the future, as it is definite prescribing
This innovation is to increase in advancement in the coming months and years
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