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St 4.1 The Antebellum period

Comparin the social and cultural characteristics of the North, the South, and the West during the antebellum period, including the lives of African Americans and social reform movements such as abolition and women’s rights.

Adam Powley

on 5 November 2012

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Transcript of St 4.1 The Antebellum period

Life in the Antebellum Period Why did the North and South fight the Civil War? (Early indicators) Regionalism morphed into Sectionalism Economic Specialties (cotton v. industry) + Colonial Settler differences + Regional Pride = Self-Interested Sectionalism decisions made solely on where you lived! The rest of 4.1 will deal with this... Westward Expansion made the problem worse! Would new states be slave or “Free-soil”? both North and South agreed that there needed to be a balance of each Puritans Quakers Diverse Cities These elements of the colonial North had some important impacts on the Antebellum Period Education was established early by the Puritans of Massachusetts Bay to enable the faithful to read the Bible. higher education levels led to more entrepreneurs, manufacture and "white collar"-ish jobs Geography of the area led to more industry Immigrants were attracted to the jobs in growing industries immigrants contributed to the cultural diversity and growing population of the region. Factories use wage labor so there were relatively few slaves in the North they did not significantly impact the culture of the region. Northern Issues Wanted High Tariffs Wanted a National Bank The South The North strongly influenced by its colonial beginnings and its economy. Planter elites controlled gov’t, culture, society Even though most Southerners lived on family farms and didn’t own slaves planter elites controlled politics they could make slavery an issue that led to Civil War Remember Geography and its impacts Large Navigable Rivers meant ships could go right to the fields which leads to a lack of major cities and roads/railroads no public education
Wealthy hired private tutors
poor whites did not go to school
Slaves education forbidden No industry
no immigrants
less diversity Because of the large slave population and significant numbers of free blacks, African Americans contributed substantially to culture and society in the South. (more on this in a minute) Southern Issues Wanted Low Tariffs They had little manufacturing and bought foreign products
This would make products more expensive
Also, other countries might raise their tariffs if US raised its tariff Wanted to ensure spread of slavery to the west The West People brought their traditions with them.
Northerners flooded into the north-west
Southerners expanded into the south-west Remember Clay's America System Remember the need for more cash crop land This was also a reason for the MX War Western Issues They supported things such as cheap land
internal improvements (roads, RRs, et al.)
uncontrolled banking (more money, some inflation ok) Westerners were “rugged individuals” African Americans in the North Some Northern states emancipated, but not all
Slavery outlawed in old NW ordinance territory Free blacks in north didn’t have the same rights as the whites “Disenfranchised”
They lost (or never had) the right to vote.
This was during the “Jacksonian Democracy, ” the
period when Universal Male
Suffrage was all the rage. Were “Second-Class” citizens
So weren’t women and most immigrants Faced "De Facto" Segregation There was no law forcing segregation, but segregation happened anyways Improvements for the African American conditions grew out of the North though A growing reform movement took place in the antebellum period Partially a response “The Great Awakening”. A religious re-awakening similar to modern evangelicalism reform efforts included temperance, prison reform and most important, abolition Abolition first developed among Quakers who believed that everyone, even slaves, had an inner light. Abolition is a moral imperative to eliminate slavery More than "Free Soil" which wanted to keep minorities out of new states mainly to eliminate job competition with white settlers Famous Abolitionists Nat Turner
Led a “rebellion” because God told him to… early terrorist Frederick Douglass
Free in North, fought through politics and literature Harriet Tubman
Underground Railroad Conductor William Lloyd Garrison
Published The Liberator John Brown
Led Harper Ferry’s Raid
Thought he was going to start a race war to free slaves Grimke Sisters
southern planter daughters Challanges to Slavery lead to Southern Defensiveness By the 1840s sectional perspectives were hardened slave owners felt the need to justify their culture which further divided the nation All the abolition activities (especially the rebellions) led the south to become defensive Emancipation couldn’t even be discussed South saw slavery as an overall “positive good Felt they were “Paternal” or fatherly Slaves were better off than the wage earners up north Besides, most northerners were not abolitionists and did not believe African Americans should not have equal rights Abolition and the slavery issue wouldn’t cause big problems until Westward Expansion forced the issue… Issues with the Abolition Movement The movement was more of a loose collection than a unified movement Use political channels or just push rebellion? Should women have a say in the movement? This led to the Women’s Movement Organized the Seneca Falls Convention (1848)
Called for suffrage, right to own and control property, get an education, get a divorce
“All 'men' created equal”? African American Culture Most African Americans living in the South were slaves Still, the conditions of their lives depended in large part on where they lived and the benevolence of their masters. On many larger plantations slaves were on the "Task" system. They were left alone as long as the work was done and were able to form bonds and even develop their own sense of culture For example, on SC rice plantations slave owners often left slaves alone for months to grow the crops. The slaves combined their varied cultures into on common culture known as Gullah Emancipation in the North Southern Cotton Production 1820-1860
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