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Classification of Animals


Killian Davis

on 5 January 2014

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Transcript of Classification of Animals

• Scientists have been classifying animals for hundreds of years
It's All in the Name
• Binomial nomenclature is the system in which each organism is given a unique two-part name
Structure of Modern Classification
• The largest classification is Domain of which there are three: Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya.
Throughout the Sands of Time
Biological Classification
• Nature aficionado; naturalist
Getting Visual
Defining Classification
Why Classify?
• Millions of organisms on Earth
• Each shares characteristics with other organisms
• Great diversity among all of them
• Field of biology concerning classification
• Sorts all living things into categories
"Back in my day..."
• Aristotle (384 - 322 BCE) is credited with devising the first formal classification system
• Aristotle sorted animals based on whether they had cold or warm blood, and whether they walked, swam or flew
• Most early classification systems were based on physical appearance
Getting Visual
• While enrolled at the University of Leiden in 1735, he published '
Systema Naturae
• Primarily a doctor, he spent much of his time treating syphilis
Carl Linnaeus
• Created binomial nomenclature and the modern classification system
• The first part of the name is the genus, the second the species
• Genus is always capitalized, species is always lowercase.
• Both are in
• The structure is the same within each domain and goes in order from largest to smallest:

• Protista
Unicellular or multicellular, nucleus and plasma membrane is present, cell wall and/or chloroplasts may be present. Heterotrophs and autotrophs are included. (algae, amoebas)
• Fungi
Unicellular or multicellular; only heterotrophs, have a nucleus, cell wall, and plasma membrane, but no chloroplasts. (yeasts, mushrooms, molds)
• Plantae
Only multicellular; have a nucleus, cell wall, chloroplasts, plasma membrane. Only autotrophs. (mosses, trees, grasses)
• Animalia
Multicellular; contain nucleus and plasma membrane but no chloroplasts or cell wall. Organisms in Animalia are all heterotrophs. (sponges, worms, mammals, fish)
• Most classification efforts are based in evolutionary theory in addition to DNA and other similarities
• Phylogeny is the evolutionary history of a group of organisms
• Cladograms (a different kind of branching chart) are also fairly commonly used
• Evolutionary history of a group of organisms
• Shown by a branching diagram with many organisms originating from a common ancestor
• Cladograms are also branching diagrams but differ from phylogenetic trees
• Cladograms illustrate phylogenetic (evolutionary) relationships and show where species have diverged from their ancestors
Dichotomous Keys
• Reference tool that works by narrowing down the possible species through a list of questions
• Allows user to find classification of organisms fairly easily.
• Classification of animals is critical for biological study
• Scientists have been finding ways to classify organisms for hundreds of years
• Linnaeus' classification system is still in use today (Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species)
• There are many ways to observe evolutionary relationships and classification including dichotomous keys, phylogenetic trees, and cladograms
• Classification is always changing
Change Over the Years
• As most taxonomy is based on evolutionary theory, it must change with it
• New discoveries lead to changes, additions, and subtractions from current methods and theories
( 1707 - 1778 )
"Aristotle (384-322 B.C.E.)." Aristotle. UCMP Berkeley, n.d. Web. 10 Dec. 2013. <http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/aristotle.html>.

"Carl Linnaeus." Carl Linnaeus. UCMP Berkeley, 7 July 2000. Web. 11 Dec. 2013. <http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/linnaeus.html>.

Miller, Kenneth R., and Joseph S. Levine. "Classification (Chapter 18)." Prentice Hall. Pearson Education, 2006. Web. 11 Dec. 2013. <http://ocas.pearsonschool.com/ph/cd/0-13-115540-7/index.html?token=53616c7465645f5ffc3626d15422ebfad7d19a779310649af8927992f3d9b189bbe2a7e0b5ba5be91d61cc56328106471cda978b1b346d0b90ac8746dc7d6b5f82c164fe5ad58c55>.

Ridge, Bob. "Systematics, Taxonomy, Classification." Systematics , Taxonomy, Classification. International Christian University, 18 June 2007. Web. 11 Dec. 2013. <http://ridge.icu.ac.jp/gen-ed/classif.html>.

Tilton, Lois. "From Aristotle to Linnaeus: The History of Taxonomy." From Aristotle to Linnaeus: The History of Taxonomy. Dave's Garden, 10 Jan. 2009. Web. 10 Dec. 2013. <http://davesgarden.com/guides/articles/view/2051/>.
Works Cited
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