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Introduction to photography

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Hao Raun Wong

on 7 October 2014

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Transcript of Introduction to photography

Disadvantages of Direct-Flash
Area of light source is too small - Harsh
Produces a washed out flat look; does not look natural
Strong shadows, glare from reflective surfaces
Weird catch-light in the eyes
Source of light is larger - Soft
Can be directional
Catch-light is dayuummmm
Fixed focal length
Better optical performance
Lighter and smaller (but you might have to carry more than one lens)
Wider aperture ie. Faster lens

12 MP
ISO 100-6400
Shutter life: 100,000
9-points AF

(as of 04/2014)

The body - housing for camera
The lens - eye of the camera
The sensor - digital equivalent of film
Flash card - Compact flash, SD
Battery - duh
The Parts
Point and shoot (compact)
The Body
Digital Single Lens Reflex (DSLR)
Micro Four Third system (MFT)
also known as Mirrorless
sits between compact and DSLR
unique market position: small yet powerful
but size is an issue...
perhaps more important than the body
Focal length
Aperture size
Where bokeh-licious happens
The lens
10-16 mm - Ultra-Wide Angle
17-28 mm - Wide Angle
29-50 mm - General
>51 mm - Telephoto
Focal length
Prime Lens vs Zoom Lens
determines how much light it uses to create an image (dynamic range)
bigger sensor gains more information than smaller ones
Common sensor sizes out there
Full Frame (equivalent to 35 mm film)
- 1.3x
1.6x Canon
1.84 - 2x
Sensor size
Presented by Rachel & Hao
Medium Format
larger than DSLR
higher resolution
better quality...?

Harder, Better, Faster, Stronger (bigger)
More manual functionality
Higher dynamic range
High Distortion Level
Low Distortion Level
Canon 5D Mark III
ƒ/2.8 16.0 mm 0.8 sec ISO100
Canon 5D Mark III
ƒ/2.8 24.0 mm 1/60 sec ISO10000
Canon 5D Mark III
ƒ/2.8 58.0 mm 1/60 sec ISO320
n 5D Mark III
8 120.0 mm 1/1600 sec ISO800
The three elements of Photography
Shutter Speed
It all come down to these
level of sensitivity of the camera sensor to available light
measured in numbers - higher the value, brighter the image eg. ISO 100, 200, 800, 3200, 6400, 256000
Setback - noise/grain
Noise increases as the sensitivity of ISO increases
the length of time a camera shutter is open
measured in seconds (or fraction of a second)
1/125th of a second, 1/80, 1/2, 5 secs, 30 secs
fast shutter speed freezes motion
slow shutter speed captures motion blur
Shutter Speed
an opening within a lens which light travels into the camera body
the wider the opening, the more light travels into the camera sensor
expressed in '
eg. f/1.4, f/2.0, f/5.6, f/10, f/22.
Also control depth of field
the wider the aperture, the shallower the depth of field
Scenario: Group Phot
6 people, outdoor (plenty of ro
om to
move around)
Objective: get everyone in
shallow depth of field (
as blurry as
if you use wide an
everyone w
ill be in focused
r depth of field w
ill not be as s
and distortion!
use a telephoto, and step back!
Aperture is how wide you open the door (to let the light in)
Shutter Speed is how long you're leaving the door opened
ISO is how you're gonna modify the NVG to help your eyes see better
Imagine you're in a pitch black room with only a door and you have a Night Vision Goggle
Freezing the motion
Canon 1D Mark IV
ƒ/3.5 100.0 mm 1/1600 sec ISO4000
Canon 5D Mark III
ƒ/4.0 200.0 mm 1/800 sec ISO100
Canon 5D Mark III
ƒ/2.8 95.0 mm 1/800 sec ISO800
Capturing the motion blur
Canon 5D Mark III
ƒ/10.0 34.0 mm 100 sec ISO50
Canon 5D Mark III
ƒ/5.6 70.0 mm 5 sec ISO50
Canon 5D Mark III
ƒ/2.8 30.0 mm 3.2 sec ISO125
Canon 1D Mark IV
ƒ/4.0 16.0 mm 15 sec ISO50
Canon 5D Mark III
ƒ/7.1 24.0 mm 0.5 sec ISO200
Canon 5D Mark III
ƒ/3.2 70.0 mm 15 sec ISO100
Scenario 2
Bright day light at seaside/waterfall
Objective: to capture the motion blur of the water flow
shutter speed needs to be quite long
image will still be overexposed even if aperture is set to the smallest, eg. f/20
use Neurtal Density (ND) filter
think of it as sunglasses for your lens
allows you to keep your aperture wide open and still have a long exposure
Purakanui Falls (NZ) @ 1.30pm
Canon 5D Mark III
ƒ/9.0 22.0 mm 35 sec ISO400
with Lee Big Stopper (10 stops)
Cape Schanck @ 8.00pm (summer)
Canon 5D Mark III
ƒ/3.5 22.0 mm 70 sec ISO50
with Lee 3 stops graduated filter and Big Stopper
Scenario 1
tive: capt
uring the milky way
arely visib
le to our eyes
stay away from the city as far as you can
set shutter speed to 20-30 secs
enough to prevent the milky way turn into a star trail
start with high ISO - noise doesn't quite matter in this case as your shot are going to be grainy anyway
Canon 50D
ƒ/3.5 10.0 mm 30 sec ISO1250
Canon 50D
ƒ/9.0 19.0 mm ~6 hours ISO200
Canon 5D Mark III
ƒ/5.0 24.0 mm 1/40 sec ISO6400
Canon 5D Mark III
ƒ/4.0 16.0 mm 1/160 sec ISO5000
Canon 5D Mark III
ƒ/1.2 50.0 mm
1/1250 sec

camera gets confused under different sources of light
A white piece of paper may look orange to a camera under candlelight, blue under the sky, green under fluorescent light
White Balance = colour
White Balance
invest in a monitor with wide colour gamut
calibrate your monitor
shoot RAW if you are going to edit your photos - jpeg is a pain in the butt to post-process
to get the most colour out of your photos
Colour temperature
Customizing white balance
K = Degrees Kelvin
there are tools to help you achieve accurate white balance
grey card
expo disc
software white balance dropper tool
feeling creative?
colour checker
Canon 5D Mark III
ƒ/2.8 95.0 mm 1/1600 sec ISO640
Auto White Balance in camera
Custom WB in Lightroom

Camera Metering & Exposure
Metering Options
Focusing Modes
Shooting Mode
One Shot Focusing
Canon - One-shot AF
Nikon - AF-S

Continuous Focusing
Canon - AI Servo AF
Nikon - AF-C

Automatic Autofocus Mode
Canon - AI Focus AF
Nikon - AF-A

Spot Metering
Incident vs Reflected Light
Objects does not reflect the same percentage of Incident Light
in-camera metering is based on luminance of Reflected Light
Handheld light Meter is based on Incident Light
Incident light
Reflected light
Partial Metering
Canon only?
same as spot metering but metering coverage is bigger ~10 - 15%
woohoo for portraiture, close-up macro
the metering spot move along with selected focus point on more advanced cameras
Why the price difference ?
Resolutions (can be overrated)
Crop sensor vs Full Frame
Better ISO performance
Frame per seconds (FPS)
Focus points (cross-type AF points)
Weather sealing
Shutter actuation
Compare the pair
Canon 1DX

18 MP
ISO 100-204800
Shutter life: 400,000
61-points AF

(as of 04/2014)

Canon 1100D

this baby is full frame!
Variable focal length
Cheaper, trade off for sharpness
Higher versatility
Aperture may varies as you zoom
Bokeh ;[

Canon - Evaluative, Nikon - Matrix
Divide the whole scene into zones
Number of zones varies depending on your camera
Designed to be all around shooting - hit or miss
very similar to multi-zone metering
always meter the center
more consistent, predictable
Manual Focusing Mode - Good luck you're on your own
Program Mode (P)
camera makes decisions for you
no flash (unless you tell it to)
Aperture Mode (Aperture Priority - Av)
you control aperture and exposure value
camera changes shutter values for you
useful when Depth of Field is more important than anything else
Shutter Mode (Shutter Priority - Tv)
you control shutter and exposure value
camera changes aperture value for you
useful when shutter is more important than anything else
Manual Mode (M)
you control everything
Bulb Mode (B)
allows you to put any shutter value you want
usually used along with a shutter release/remote
the only way to extend your shutter value to more than
30 secs
Flash photography
Exposure Triangle
Flash Modes
Bounce Flash
now your photography is more complicated
two exposure in one - ambient + flash exposure
apart from brightening your subject, flash can be used to override the ambient light
forget built-in flash >:]
Dynamic Range
Very dark
Very light
the ratio between the max and min measurable light intensities
a scene may not always be even litten, especially outdoor
i.e demands high dynamic range
Tools to help you
Graduated neutral density filter
Histogram - dayuuuum useful
Zone 1
Zone 2
Zone 3
Zone 4
Zone 5
Very Dark (Black pixels)
Very Light
(White pixels)
18% gray lives here
number of pixels
18% grey?
stacks multiple shots with different exposure values into one
software picks up different bits from each exposure and attempt to make the final image with a balanced exposure
High Dynamic Range (HDR)
-3 Ev
0 Ev
+3 Ev
...ok, what if you have done all that, and your shots are still underexposed?
Aperture and ISO affects Flash
Shutter speed
affects ambient light in the scene
Flash sync speed - the fastest shutter speed you can use
High-speed sync
TTL (Through-the-Lens) metering
Canon - E-TTL (Evaluative)
Basically automatic - camera decides flash power output for you
Flash fires twice
Pre-flash (so fast you probably won't notice anyway)
Pre-flash bounced off the subject and travels back to the camera
do the math thing
Flash Exposure Compensation (FEC)
Manual metering
You're the boss
Determines flash output by changing Power value
1/1, 1/2, 1/8,1/16, 1/32
Best way to learn Flash
solution to overcome flash sync speed
helps you to overpower the sun
make sure you have batteries with fast recycle speed
or connect your flash to external power
Canon 5D Mark III
16.0 mm
Canon 5D Mark III
ƒ/2.8 35.0 mm 1/60 sec ISO 1000
Flash bounced off ceiling and the right wall
Canon 5D Mark III
ƒ/4.0 24.0 mm 1/160 sec ISO 400
Off-camera, direct flash from the left
Mo Choices
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