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Why many small pleasures beat fewer larger ones

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Geovane Portiglioti

on 14 October 2015

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Transcript of Why many small pleasures beat fewer larger ones

Coleção ENEM V
Thin people at much higher risk of death after surgery
People with a body mass index (BMI) of 23 or less were 40 percent more likely to die within a month of a surgical procedure, compared with people whose BMI was between 26 and 29. BMI is an indicator of body fatness. A BMI less than 18.5 is considered underweight, between 18.5 and 24.9 is normal weight, between 25 and 29.9 is overweight and above 30 is obese, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

The findings suggest that low BMI should be recognized as an important risk factor for death following surgery, said study researcher George Stukenborg, of the University of Virginia’s School of Medicine. Doctors should take into account thinness when planning a patient's care after surgery, and should tell thin patients about their increased risk of death, Stukenborg said.
De acordo com o texto:
a) pequenas alegrias são mais gratificantes que grandes prazeres.
b) sessões de massagem são muito agradáveis.
c) devemos tentar nos acostumar com o que temos de bom.
d) massagens são eficazes para aliviar o estresse.
e) a alegria é resultado direto da gratidão.

Former astronaut to lead starship effort
The Pentagon's research agency has chosen a former astronaut to lead a foundation that is designed to take humanity to the stars. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (Darpa) and Nasa are sponsoring the project, known as the 100-Year Starship.
Since it was first announced last year, the 100-Year Starship project has been met with trepidation by some, and excitement by many. With Nasa scaling back its manned space programmes, the idea of a manned trip to the stars, which is well beyond any current technology, may sound audacious. But the goal is not to have the government fund the actual building of spacecraft destined for the stars, but rather to create a foundation that can last 100 years in order to help foster the research needed for interstellar travel. The money for the winning team, $500,000, is small, but is designed to help jumpstart the effort.
De acordo com o texto:
a) aqueles com peso normal têm sempre melhores prognósticos.
b) os magros têm uma taxa de sovivência consideravelmente maior.
c) os obesos têm melhores perspectivas que os de peso normal.
d) o IMC do paciente é um dado irrelevante em procedimentos cirúrgicos.
e) gente acima do peso se dá melhor em cirurgias que os de peso normal.
Why many small pleasures beat fewer larger ones
Here’s a perplexing study. Nelson & Meyvis (2008) had participants massaged for 3 minutes. However one group had a 20 second break in the middle while the others had a continuous massage. Who enjoyed it more?

People predicted it would be the continuous massage, but they were wrong. People enjoyed the massage with the break more because the break stopped them becoming acclimatised to the massage.

The enemy of happiness is adaptation. Unfortunately we get used to things and they give us less pleasure; after a while we start taking them for granted. It’s sad but true.

But if you keep doing lots of small, different pleasurable things, you’ll get more pleasure overall and you’ll feel happier. This is partly why many small pleasures beat fewer larger ones.

Qual é a afirmação correta, segundo o texto?
a) Um astronauta foi escolhido para viver no espaço até completar 100 anos.
b) A Nasa ofereceu sua tecnologia de voos tripulados à iniciativa privada.
c) O projeto incentiva a pesquisa para a construção de espaçonaves a longo prazo.
d) A Darpa é uma fundação que visa a incrementar a longevidade no espaço.
e) O governo americano bancará os custos de uma colônia espacial.
Brazil sports minister promises "a great World Cup"
Aldo Rebelo, a member of the country's Communist Party, is addressing the Soccerex global football business seminar in Rio de Janeiro. A powerful, even intimidating, public speaker, he certainly has the attention of all the delegates attending the annual gathering of football industry movers and shakers from around the world.
And Mr Rebelo's message is loud and clear - Brazil is going to be ready for hosting the 2014 World Cup, and the tournament is going to be a great success.
Segundo o texto, o ministro Aldo Rebelo
a) fascina a todos que o conhecem.
b) tem excelente dicção em nosso idioma.
c) fala alto, sem necessidade de microfone.
d) intimida com sua presença e retórica.
e) está pronto para a Copa como ministro.
Why 3-D TV still hasn't caught on
3-D television was heralded as the breakthrough technology of the 2010 Consumer Electronics Show. Hot on the heels of James Cameron's eye-opening Avatar, 3-D HDTVs were everywhere on the show floor. One year later, at CES 2011, we saw bigger 3D HDTVs, 3-D displays that didn't require special glasses, and camcorders that captured 3-D content. But where is 3-D now? Worldwide adoption is still likely less than 2%.

After "Avatar," a string of unsuccessful, rushed-to-market 3-D flicks -- we're looking at you, "Clash of the Titans" -- zoomed to theaters hoping to cash in on the craze. Moviegoers were left with a bad taste in their mouths and even handsome 3-D specs can't mitigate the headaches and fatigue suffered by some viewers of 3-D content, or the high prices of 3-D TVs. So, yes, 3-D TVs are expensive. And they can cause headaches. And they aren't supported by a lot of quality content.
Assinale a alternativa que não seja confirmada pelo texto.

a) Filmes em 3-D costumam ser de má qualidade.
b) Algumas TVs não exigem óculos 3-D.
c) O custo de TVs 3-D é muito elevado.
d) As TVs 3-D constituem um sucesso no mundo todo.
e) Óculos 3-D não previnem contra a dor de cabeça.

Brazil’s rapid growth shudders to a halt
Brazil’s economy stalled in the third quarter of this year, demonstrating that the world’s emerging market growth engines are no immune to the global slowdown. Gross domestic product was unchanged in the three months ended September 30, from the previous quarter as weakness in the industrial sector spread to Brazil’s once vibrant consumer. The sharp slowdown in Brazil comes as China reported last week that manufacturing activity in November contracted for the first time in nearly years.
For Brazil, the slowdown is particularly pronounced, coming after 2010 when the economy grew 7.5 per cent. Brazilian President Rousseff has announced stimulus measures and the central bank has begun slashing interest rates to try to prevent the economy from slipping into negative territory in the coming months.

A estagnação da economia brasileira no terceiro trimestre do ano:

a) decorre da política econômica heterodoxa do governo Dilma.
b) levou o governo a tentar estimular o nível de atividade.
c) foi provocada pelo povo brasileiro, que se recusou a continuar consumindo.
d) é consequência direta do desaquecimento da China, país do qual o Brasil é dependente em commodities.
e) impele a indústria brasileira a fazer demissões em massa.

'Lost World' of Sea Creatures Discovered Near Antarctica
A "lost world" of sea creatures was discovered near Antarctica, British scientists doing their first exploring of deep-sea vents in the Antarctic said it was unlike anything found around other hydrothermal vents -- a world populated by new species of anemones, predatory sea stars, and piles of hairy-chested yeti crabs. It was "almost like a sight from another planet," said expedition leader Alex Rogers, a professor of zoology at Oxford University.

Even in the eye-popping world of deep-sea vents, the Antarctic discoveries stand out, with the unfamiliar species of crabs found crowded in piles around the warm waters emanating from the seafloor. Many of the animals found at the vents have never been found at hydrothermal vents in other oceans, Rogers said. In the dayless world of deep-sea vents, energy comes not from the sun but from the hydrothermal energy generated in the oceanic crust.
Espécies desconhecidas de caghejos
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