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Rape in Conflict

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Madeleine Pawlowski

on 3 November 2014

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Transcript of Rape in Conflict

'
Rape in Conflict
Madeleine, D’Arcy, Tom

CIVILIANS
Breakdown of rule of law

'PEACEKEEPERS'
Positions of power

MILITARY FORCES
Tactic



OPPORTUNISTIC?
OR
MILITARY?
OR
POLITICAL STRATEGY?


GOAL:
to exert power, claim dominance and brutalize the enemy

Ordered down through the chain of command
Unit-cohesion
'Weaponization' of HIV
Examples:
DRC
Sudan
Rwanda
Libya

MILITARY STRATEGY
POLITICAL

....often in the after math of conflict

SGBV is used as a form of political violence to (re)establish gender order and ethnic dominance

Ex. Returning (female) Tamil combatants face SGBV in Sri Lanka


WHAT?
IMPACTS?
RESPONSE?
WHY ?
WHO?
MANY FORMS OF SEXUAL VIOLENCE

rape, sexual slavery, forced pregnancy, sterilization, genital mutilation

WIDESPREAD

22 conflict areas between 2011 and 2012

TROUBLE WITH NUMBERS

Under-reporting and logistical difficulties
' TRIPLE
VICTIMIZATION '

Trauma
Fear
Self-blame
Mental disorders


“I’m dying of shame....all I had was my honor… you lose that, you have nothing.”




STIs
Pregnancy
Fistulas
Infertility
Chronic pain



Rape victims seek treatment in the DRC

BLAMING & OSTRACIZATION OF VICTIMS

“My husband insults me everyday, calling me the wife of the militiamen who raped me...[and]
when I ask my husband to give me some food he replies to me, why don’t you go and ask for food to your husband in the forest?
” (MSF 2004) ......need a country for this ex. Tom




INTERGENERATIONAL IMPACTS
Parenting, 'Social Proximity'

CHILDREN OF VICTIMS
Higher susceptibility to abuse

FEAR OF SEXUAL VIOLENCE
Mental health, educational attainment
and economic integration issues

LINGERING NORMS INCREASE RISK
OF FURTHER VIOLENCE
Weakened rule of law, normalization of
gender-based violence in a new form,
reintegration of former combatants
Location: Sudan

MYTHS
MYTH 1= SEXUAL VIOLENCE
IN CONFLICT IS INEVITABLE
Sexual violence is seen as
'just another stressor'
in populations exposed to extreme stress: there is no need to do anything special to address sexual violence

MYTH 2 = MENTAL HEALTH IS
NOT RELEVANT OUTSIDE
WESTERN CULTURE
Mental disorders are
universal
concepts
Ex. depression & PTSD part of the International Classification of Diseases
Need
'adapted treatments'

MYTH 3 = SEXUAL VIOLENCE OCCURS IN ALL CONFLICTS
Not only used by armed groups
SGBV specific to
SOME perpetrator groups
, it is, a
tactic

MYTH 4 = WE DON'T HAVE GOOD DATA SO WE CANNOT
UNDERSTAND THE PATTERNS
Call for a Int’l Protocol for the Documentation and Investigation of Sexual Violence

Start with examining why gender-based violence is normalized, not reported

Reporting reflects and reinforces gendered social relations

MYTH 5 = SEXUAL VIOLENCE
ONLY AFFECTS WOMEN AND GIRLS
Denied by both victim and perpetrator
Taboo
Cultural + Political
Little acknowledgment from governments, aid agencies, HR groups, UN
“22% of men, and 30% of women in Eastern Congo reported sexual violence” (Journal of American Medical Assoc 2010)
El Salvador (1980s) 76% male prisoners raped
Sarajevo 6,000 concentration camp inmates, 80% of men raped

STILL gender-natured violence

MYTH 6 = RAPE OCCURS EXCLUSIVELY IN CONFLICT

PREVALENT AROUND THE WORLD
India, Nigeria, Zimbabwe, South Africa, US Military
Often ignored or overlooked
Lack of focus on ‘peace time’

DOMESTIC
RESPONSE


1. Legal Framework
2. Legal Will
3. Legal Capacity



“Her husband called the police. Nobody came.”
“When the couple went to the police station, an officer asked the ages of her teenage children and then said, “Who would rape such an old woman?” -Syria

(LACK OF?) INTERNATIONAL
RESPONSE
RAPE CONSIDERED ONE OF THE
'LEGITIMATE SPOILS OF WAR'

Ex. 13th Century
Genghis Khan’s strategic policies
of rape warfare

1998 UN REPORT ON SEXUAL VIOLENCE
Recognizes trends in history and shifting perceptions of rape in conflict



1992 YUGOSLAVIA

First properly documented “Massive, organized, and systematic detention and rape of women, in particular Muslim women, in Bosnia and Herzegovina”

INCORPORATION OF RAPE INTO
HUMAN RIGHTS LAW

1993 Int’l Criminal Tribunal for Yugoslavia
-Rape declared crime against humanity

1994 Int’l Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda
-Rape declared a war crime & crime against humanity


When committed systematically, the following are considered “Crimes against Humanity”:

Rape
Sexual slavery
Enforced prostitution
Forced pregnancy
Enforced sterilization

“Any other form of sexual violence of comparable gravity”

UN ACTION AGAINST SEXUAL VIOLENCE
IN CONFLICT (2007)


United effort to improve coordination, accountability, stepping up programs, and support national efforts to prevent sexual violence and respond to survivors

Ex. Joint Gov’t-UN Program on Sexual Violence in Liberia




Unite To End Violence Against Women

-UN agencies, individuals, civil society, governments
-To raise public awareness and increase political will and resources for preventing and ending all forms of violence against women and girls


hosted by Angelina Jolie + Williams Hague












+20 years of discourse
Reactive vs. Proactive
Prevention allocations?
Impunity?
Follow up?

UN “Peacekeepers”


VICTIMS

"Noting that
civilians
account for the vast majority of those adversely affected by armed conflict; that
women and girls
are particularly targeted by the use of sexual violence, including as a tactic of war to humiliate, dominate, instil fear in, disperse and/or forcibly relocate civilian members of a community or ethnic group"

S/RES/1820 (2008)

PERPETRATORS

CITIZENS
State Collapse
Destroyed health and justice systems

'PEACEKEEPERS'
AU Troops known as Amison
Sexually abused and exploited women

SOMALIA


CIVIL WAR
Widespread use of rape
Government soldiers
Raids, checkpoints and detention facilities


ISIS
Mosul prison
Religious justifications


5.4 million deaths
All sides guilty, no accountability
Rape as a weapon of war in DRC
to humiliate
to gain “magic power”
to terminate pregnancies
to control communities/territories
to silence
to avoid violence from superior

DRC
“In Libya, when rape occurs, its seems to be a whole village or town that has been dishonored.”
-Arafat Jamal UNHCR

2011 Uprisings:
Rape as tool of war?
-Systematic?
-Mass rape?
-Continued turmoil + confusion
-ICC evidence
-Compensation as “war victims”

LIBYA
WHY ARE WE
FAILING?
lack of
legal systems
lack of
political willing
not addressing
gender norms
TAHIR SQUARE, CAIRO
HOW?
SOUTH
SUDAN
“Prevention initiatives addressing the
broader protection environment
for survivors and those at risk should include
addressing social norms
that
reinforce violent masculinities


- WHO

NO
ONE
STRATEGY
OPPORTUNISTIC:
military training and socialization and legal technique may be effective

MILITARY
OR
POLITICAL
STRATEGY:
???

RESTORATIVE STRATEGIES
INDIVIDUAL LEVEL:
Reparations to victims
Increase access to physical and
mental health services

COMMUNITY LEVEL:
Promoting of dialogue and education
Social reintegration

INTERNATIONAL LEVEL:
Transitional Justice - Tribunals


DISCLAIMER
ANY INTERVENTION IS NOT "BETTER THAN NOTHING"
"I heard a story of a woman who had just given birth, who had been raped. I heard a story of an old woman who was raped. I heard a story of children as young as 10, 11 years who are being raped on a daily basis."

Zainab Bangura, UN Special Representative on Sexual Violence in Conflict

“When humanitarian advocates construe immensely complex crises as “manageable problems,” the
promotion
of
simple technical panaceas
may inadvertently increase the burden of poverty for user-beneficiaries and
silence the voices of those they claim to champion and serve
.”


“Either we ignore these systematic fault lines and languish where we stand or we rise up, honorably, and
say we are at fault
and begin to
build a discourse of respect

between
Egypt’s
men and women
. For the sake of our nation, let us hope we choose the latter option.” (muftah.org)
BACK TO CAIRO
PREVENTION INITIATIVES
Int'l Rescue Committee
Int'l Crisis Group
UNHCR
Canadian Federation of University Women - Gender & Peacebuilding WG
OPPORTUNISTIC
1 = PSYCHOLOGICAL
2 =

PHYSICAL
3 = SOCIAL
(WHO, Mental health and psychosocial support for conflict-related sexual violence: 10 myths)
SYRIA: EXPLAINING
THE DATA
CHALLENGES
HISTORY
"Sexual violence in conflict needs to be treated as the war crime that it is; it can no longer be treated as an unfortunate collateral damage of war."

UN Special Representative on Sexual Violence in Conflict,
Ms. Zainab Hawa Bangura
Population of 70 million, approx
1.8 million women raped
,
1,151
women raped
every
day
,
48
every
hour
,
four
women raped every
minute
(World Bank 2007)
COMMUNITY RELATIONS ALTERED & DESTROYED
PERPETRATORS
-
Forces Armées de la République Démocratique du Congo
-Militia Groups
-Civilians
-UN Peacekeepers
-Teachers
-Female Perpetrators
SINCE 1998:

-Devi, a victim of SGBV in Syria
“It’s a myth that rape is an inevitable part of conflict. It is a weapon of war”
- Angelina Jolie, Global Summit
2008 UNiTE! (Ban Ki-Moon)
Special Representative of the Security General on Sexual Violence in Conflict (2010)

Security Council Resolution 1888
To provide coherent and strategic leadership, promoting cooperation and coordination through UN action

2012 Zainab Hawa Bangura
Global Summit to End Sexual Violence in Conflict (June 2014)
AND SO....?
ROME STATUTE OF THE ICC (July 2002)

• programmes can have
unintended social, poltical and psychological consequences

• should
not undermine existing supports

• services should
not explicitly target survivors
(creating highly visible, stand-alone sexual assault services that
limit confidentiality
of the survivor seeking sevices and
risks
a range of further problems such as
stigma, discrimination, violence
- WHO)

• cannot fail to recognize the social context of violence against women


MUST
start taking it seriously

SPEAK
vocally and condemn
its use

CREATE
specific national programmes of assistance
and reparations

ENACT
investigations and
monitoring programs

Volunteers create a barrier between men and women to prevent sexual harassment during a protest in Tahrir Square, Cairo, Egypt. Photograph: Amr Nabil/AP
"Cases that are reported to the police are handled in a disgusting manner," said Mariam Kirollos, an OpAntish organiser, and an activist for women's rights. "They are not taken seriously. In some cases, girls filing a police report are even harassed." - South Sudan
LEGAL:
Sexual harassment is not properly defined under Egyptian law --> prosecution?
POLITICAL:
‘Rape is a political weapon.

The fact that it happened in Tahrir in such an organized manner proves it.’
GENDER NORMS:
Boys and girls are
socialized to see rape as the woman’s fault
: ‘we don’t tell our sons not to rape;’ instead, ‘we tell our daughters don’t get raped…we will never win a political revolution till we win a social one.’
(Dr. Amira Aly, muftah.org)
Samer Abdelnour & Akbar M. Saeed,
Technologizing Humanitarian Space: Darfur Advocacy and the
Rape-Stove Panacea
Office of Humanitarian Affairs
UN Action Against Sexual Violence in Conflict- Stop Rape Now
Nobel Women's Intiative
- International Campaign to Stop Rape & Gender Violence in Conflict
-Largest global gathering to address the subject
-Tackling impunity issues and raising awareness
-Critiques?
“They will grow up beside children born of rape, all of them together forced to navigate different but commingling resentments”
(Rwanda)
Three pillars PREVENT, PROTECT, PROSECUTE—signal a comprehensive effort to stop rape in conflict
Breakdown of the rule of law
Vulnerability of women
Normalization of sexual violence
DARFUR ETC.
COMBINED IMPACT
Technological solutions
Breaking down the determinants
Full transcript