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Chemistry: The Study of Matter

Holt Modern Chemistry, Chapter 1
by

Rachel Scott

on 29 March 2013

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Transcript of Chemistry: The Study of Matter

Mass can not be created or destroyed in ordinary (not nuclear) changes.

All the mass can be accounted for. Conservation of Mass NEW PROPERTIES
Not easily reversed Chemical Reactions Energy can be neither created or destroyed in ordinary changes (not nuclear), it can only change form.

Its not just a good idea, its the law. Conservation of Energy If you trace the source far enough back, you will end up at nuclear energy. Electrical energy - energy of moving charges Types of energy Work - cause a change or move an object. Energy Made up of two substances.
Variable composition? Mixtures Words that describe matter (adjectives)

Physical Properties- a property that can be observed and measured without changing the substance.

Chemical Properties- a property that can only be observed by changing the type of substance. Properties Mass is the amount of matter present MATTER 1. State the problem. E = mc
energy = mass x (speed of light)
speed of light = 3 x 10
A little mass can make a lot of energy What about nuclear?
Not easily reversed Indications of a chemical reaction There are 118 elements
(94 naturally occur on earth)


First letter always capitalized second never

Some from Latin of other languages Chemical symbols Cannot be broken down into simpler
All one kind of atom. Substances Mixed molecule by molecule
Can occur between any state of matter.
Keep the properties of the components.
Can be separated by physical means
Not easily separated Solutions A change that changes appearances, without changing the composition.


Boiled water is still water. Physical Changes - an ionized gas; free-moving ions and electrons. States of matter Substance- a particular kind of matter Types of Matter Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass. What is Matter? Scientific Method The of the , its its and the it undergoes. What is Chemistry?

Help us form mental pictures of processes (models)


A thoroughly tested model that trys to explain why things behave a certain way.


Description of how things behave Variable composition Only one kind Making is a
physical change Making is a
chemical change More than one kind -
Molecule or atoms One kind of piece-
Molecules Mixture Compound Compound or Mixture YES NO NO Compressible? Large Expans. Small Expans. Small Expans. Temp. increase NO NO YES Definite Shape? NO YES YES Definite Volume? Gas Liquid Solid States of Matter Hypothesis Modify Experiment Prediction Theory
(Model) Law Freeze Condense Evaporate Melt Gas Liquid Solid A way of solving problems or answering questions. 2. Gather information- research the topic. 3. Form a hypothesis- an educated
guess as to the cause of the problem
or answer to the question.
(Some research is involved to make this guess) 4. Experiment- designed to test the hypothesis only two possible answers hypothesis is right Generates data observations from experiments. 5. Draw conclusions.
Hypothesis right or wrong. hypothesis is wrong Observation
Hypothesis
Experiment Observation
Hypothesis
Experiment Another outcome is that certain behavior is repeated many times Scientific Law is developed Law – how or what happens Theory- why Observation
Hypothesis
Experiment Cycle repeats many times. The hypothesis gets more and more certain. Becomes a theory Theory can never be proven. Useful because they predict behavior Observations Experiment Volume is the space occupied by matter Matter also has INERTIA-a resistance to a change in motion. Mixture- more than one kind of matter
Heterogeneous Mixtures
Homogeneous Mixtures How Do We Study It? study matter - matter that can not flow and has definite volume. - definite volume but takes the shape of its container (flows). - a substance without definite volume or shape and can flow. Solid Liquid Gas Plasma Sublime Deposit Examples? Chemical changes A change where a new form of matter is formed. Examples? A nail rusting. Heterogeneous- mixture is not the same from place to place. Chocolate chip cookie, gravel, soil. Homogeneous- same composition throughout. Kool-aid, air. Every part keeps its properties. Homogeneous mixture Liquid in gas- water vapor Examples: Solid in liquid- Kool-aid Liquid in liquid- antifreeze Gas in gas- air Solid in solid - brass Elements- simplest kind of matter Compounds - substances that can be broken down by chemical methods When they are broken down, the pieces have completely different properties than the compound.
Made of molecules- two or more atoms Each has a 1 or two letter symbol composition, properties changes The ability to do work. Many types of energy.
All can be changed into the other. Potential- stored energy Kinetic Energy- energy something has because its moving Heat- the energy that moves because of a temperature difference. Chemical energy- energy released or absorbed in a chemical change. Radiant Energy- energy that can travel through empty space (light, UV, infrared, radio) All types of energy can be converted into others. potential
kinetic
heat
chemical
electrical
radiant When one or more substances are changed into new substances. Reactants- stuff you start with Products- What you make Energy absorbed or released Color change Odor change Precipitate- solid that separates from solution Law of Conservation of Mass - Energy
the total of the mass and energy remains the same in any change 2 2 8 Intensive - Properties that do not depend on the amount of the matter present Properties Examples: Color, Odor, Luster, Malleability, Ductility, Conductivity, Hardness, Melting/Freezing Point, Boiling Point, Density Extensive - Properties that do depend on the amount of matter present Examples: Mass, Volume, Weight, Length
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