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Flowers and Seeds

Structure of Flowers, flower parts, variety, pollination, fertilization, germination, seed structure

Stephanie Klenz

on 6 December 2012

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Transcript of Flowers and Seeds

Chapter 3 Flowers and Seeds Structure of Flowers Flowers: make up reproductive parts of flowering seed plants vary greatly from plant to plant
range in size and number
BUT all flowers have one primary function for the plant: to produce seeds for reproduction Flower Parts Pedicel: flower stalk, special stem with an enlarged end where flowers form
Receptacle: end of the pedicel which is designed to hold the developing seeds
Sepals: leaflike structures attached to the receptacle
Petals: protected and enclosed by sepals, pretty part of a flower, aid in pollination
Corolla: all of the petals together Stamens: within corolla, organs that produce pollen, 2 parts
Pollen: contains male reproductive cells (sperm) for the flower, has definite shape and texture, unique to each plant
Filament: slender, elongated stalk
Anther: enlarged structure at the tip of the filament that produces the pollen Pistils: elongated, vase-shaped structure of a flower, central structure, usually only one per flower, 3 parts
Ovary: swollen base of the pistil
Ovules: future seeds, within the ovary, contain egg cells
Egg Cells: female reproductive cells
Style: stalklike structure that connects the ovary to the tip of the pistil
Stigma: the tip of the pistil, receives the pollen Most flowers have both MALE and FEMALE parts Variety in Structure Complete flower: has sepals, petals, stamens, and pistils Incomplete flower: lacks one or more of these four basic parts The red "petals" of a poinsettia aren't really petals at all. They are special leaves called bracts, so they are incomplete. Staminate: flowers that lack pistils and only have stamens - male flowers Pistillate: lack stamens and bear only pistils - female flowers Arrangement on stem:
can have each flower on a different stem or all flowers on the same stem in clusters 2 1 3 Factors Affecting Flowering The main factor for most plants is the length of daylight and night. Other factors include temperature and soil fertility. Photoperiodism: the requirement of a definite period of light and darkness before a plant will flower Plants, like humans, utilize the sun "for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years" (Genesis 1:14) Short-Day Plants: plants that require long periods of darkness and shorter periods of light to flower Long-Day Plants: plants that require a shorter period of darkness to flower Day-Neutral Plants: produce flowers no matter day length open at 5am and close at noon Morning Glory: Chrysanthemums need a long period of darkness, can be given more light to delay flowering if necessary Dandelion day length doesn't matter Gladiolus needs more sunlight than darkness Development of Fruits and Seeds Seeds develop from ovules in the ovary The ovary "ripens" as the ovules develop A fully ripened ovary is called a FRUIT, the seed-bearing structure of flowering plants Fruits protect seeds as they are forming and help distribute them BUT before a plant can form fruits... 1 2 3 4 5 POLLINATION: the transfer of pollen from an anther to the stigma portion of a pistil SELF-POLLINATION: pollination that occurs in the same flower or with another flower on the same plant CROSS-POLLINATION: pollen from an anther of one plant is transferred to a stigma of a flower on another plant by bees, butterflies, moths, wind, other insects, small animals, rain, birds
NECTAR: sweet-tasting, watery liquid produced by plants, food for others FERTILIZATION: once pollination occurs, the POLLEN (the male part) fuses with the OVULES (the female part) to begin the development into seeds GAMETES: reproductive cells
male part = pollen
female part = ovules p
n "The wide variety of ways in which pollination is assured in the various flowering plants shows the ingenuity and provident care of the Creator" WHEAT: The Staff of Life One of the world's most important seed plants
Main food source for many people in the world
Christ even compared Himself to bread "As bread is the sustainer of the physical body, so Christ is the source and sustainer of spiritual life" John 6:32-33
Jesus said to them, “Very truly I tell you, it is not Moses who has given you the bread from heaven, but it is my Father who gives you the true bread from heaven. For the bread of God is the bread that comes down from heaven and gives life to the world.” Matthew 4:4
Jesus answered, “It is written: ‘Man shall not live on bread alone, but on every word that comes from the mouth of God.’ ” The Lord's Prayer "Give us today our daily bread." Miracles: Five loaves of bread and two fish Matthew 26:26
While they were eating, Jesus took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it and gave it to his disciples, saying, “Take and eat; this is my body.” Luke 3:17
His winnowing fork is in his hand to clear his threshing floor and to gather the wheat into his barn, but he will burn up the chaff with unquenchable fire.” SEED STRUCTURE SEEDS: final result of flower and fruit formation, fully developed and matured ovules that are capable of producing a new plant
young embryo plant
seed coat: protective covering, a scar (hilum) marks the place where the seed was attached to the ovary wall The embryo is the living part of within a seed.
plumule: tiny shoot that will develop into the stem and leaves of the plant
radicle: will develop into the root system of the plant
one or two cotyledons that contain stored food for energy for the seed (as starch) GERMINATION: the sprouting of a seed
Dormancy: a period of inactivity before germination
Factors that favor germination:
1. adequate supply of moisture
2. adequate supply of oxygen
3. favorable temperature
4. proper soil conditions
5. sufficient sunlight A.
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