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Transcript of Acid Rain
Effects of Acid Rain
3 Major factors
Regions Most Affected
-U.S.A, especially New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, Maine
-eastern Europe- includes Denmark, Norway, Sweden
-China- such as Taiwan
Measuring Acidic Levels - pH
- pH is the unit used to measure acidity levels. This unit is a scale of 0-14, making 0 the most acidic and 14 the most basic. pH 7 is the most purest for living organisms.
-Damages trees and soil
-goes into soil and dissolves nutrients
Acid Rain ruins the growth process of trees
Lakes/ water, streams
- A short period of time when streams, lakes, and the ground have a much higher pH level then they normally do
-when acidic dust particles are inhaled; worsens or causes asthma and bronchitis
-nitrogen causes ground-level ozone layer; which brings pneumonia and lung damage
Did you know that swimming in an Acidic Lake or walking in an acidic puddle is no more harmful than swimming in or walking on clean water?
1) Power Plants
-burns fossil fuels to create energy
-releases acidic pollutants
2) Exhaust Fumes
-contains acidic pollutants when released into the air
Process of Exhaust Fumes:
-gasoline is inputted into automobile engines (cars, buses, etc)
-what comes out of those automobiles are exhaust fumes
->tries to balance pH level of rain to a safe 6-7
-active volcanoes release acidic pollutants as they are constantly burning
By: Mikhail J. & Charlotte H.
- Rain that has been made acidic by pollution
- Can be both wet and dry [when gases and dust particles become acidic]
- Both fall on buildings and other solid objects causing corrosion
-Acid goes into water system and damages the water
-very harmful during downpours and snow melts
-kills aquatic life
Solutions - What's being done
"Clean Air Act"
- limits how much nitrogen oxide and sulfur dioxide that is being released into the air.
- Reduce Pollution
- "wash" coals to remove some sulfur
- removes sulfur dioxide from released gasses
Alternative source of energy
Instead of burning fossil fuels
- renewable energy; solar, wind, hydro etc.
Cleaner cars- electric and hybrid cars
- low emissions
- reduces nitrogen oxide released from automobiles
-Catalytic converter -> converts pollutant gasses to less harmful ones
Acid Rain eating Washington D.C.
- Acid Rain decays building materials, making monuments look dirty and rusted
-particles such as and
that, when mixed with water form acids
enter the atmosphere of Earth
combines with water (which consists of H2O compounds)
+ H2O =
undergoes chemical reaction to form and acids
carried by wind and distributed over land
Formation & Distribution
How is Acid Rain related to our Grade 9 Science Curriculum?
- It is related to the chemistry unit where we learned about forming compounds, and reading their chemical formulas (e.g. sulfuric dioxide SO2).
- Secondly, it will be a factor/problem discussed in our Biology: Sustainable Ecosystems because acid precipitation will affect all living things.
How large is the damage to aquatic species?
Each can survive up to...
Frogs can live up to pH 4
Clams can only live up to pH 6
Trout fishes can live up to pH 5
High Tolerance to acidity
Low Tolerance to acidity
Which means that it can only live in healthy lakes!
Mayflies live up to pH 5.5
According to the food chain, each animal relies on each other
So, if mayflies started disappearing when a lake has a pH of 5.5,
trouts and frogs won't last long either because their source of food (the mayflies) are gone
Countries and their cities which have been noted to receive continuous results of acid rain