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Chapter 13: Repressed Memories and Novel Syndromes
Transcript of Chapter 13: Repressed Memories and Novel Syndromes
Battered Woman Syndrome
The "Twinkie Defense": the statements about sugar and junk food consumption and their effect on the behavior of Dan White were made by a psychiatrist, who would normally be regarded as an authoritative and trustworthy expert by a jury. But according to Halpern the lack of critical thinking about science in the courtroom often is the result of juries automatically accepting the testimony of such "experts" When an expert's testimony corroborates the beliefs of jurors they are not motivated to seek disconfirming evidence.
Repressed Memory Syndrome
Repressed Memory Syndrome and Stockholm Syndrome
a FALSE MEMORY is a memory that is a distortion of an actual experience or confabulation of an imagined one. Many false memories involve confusing or mixing fragments of memory events some of which may have happened at different times that which are remembered as having occured together.
and False Memories
explained by Joel Scott
and Novel Syndromes
Those who were able to control their environment before did as well as as new subjects however, those in the unsolvable condition before did significantly worse. Like the dogs in the original experiments the human subjects also inaccurately generalized their learned helplessness to a new situation.
The name derives from a 1973 hostage incident in Stockholm, Sweden. At the end of six days of captivity in a bank, several kidnap victims actually resisted rescue attempts, and afterwards refused to testify against their captors.
While some people are suggesting the recent Elizabeth Smart kidnapping sounds like a case of Stockholm Syndrome, the most famous incident in the U.S. involved the kidnapped heiress Patty Hearst. Captured by a radical political group known as the Symbionese Liberation Army in 1974, Ms. Hearst eventually became an accomplice of the group, taking on an assumed name and assisting them in several bank robberies. After her re-capture, she denounced the group and her involvement.
Purports to involve forgetting a painful experience that can then be remembered through a therapeutic intervention. Often the "revealed" experiences conveniently give rise to civil law suits against those included in the newly restored memories, usually parents or relatives. Memories range from child abuse to witchcraft. THe one doing the remembering is not the patient but rather the therapist.
a SYNDROME is a set of syntompts and signs that occur in a regular pattern from patient to pateint that collectively indicate or characterize a disease, psychological disorder or other abnormal condition.
REPRESSION is a pyschological defense mechanism whereby distressing thoughts, memories, or impulses that may give rise to anxiety are excluded from consciousness and left to operate in the unconscious and left to operate in the unconscious.
DISASSOCIATION refers to the abnormal integration of thoughts, feelings, and experiencs into the stream of consciousnesses and memory that traumatic memories can be split off from consciousawareness
In 1943 the psychoanalyst Leo Kanner first introduced "autism" and suggested its cause may be related to a "genuine lack of maternal warmth" exhibited by mothers who are obsessive and mechanical in the way they relate to their children.
a CONFABULATION is a fantasy that has unconsciously emerged as a factual account in memory. A confabulation may be based partly on fact or be a complete construction the imagination.
SOURCE MEMORY :
involves a memory that is accurate and often detailed in every way except the source is mistaken
Hints and suggestions from therapist "lead" clients to "uncovering latent memories"
Sodium amytal: t r u t h serum, is utilized to aid in recalling memories
In which hostages form an identification with their captors who had terrorized them in these situations, bonding to one's captors is a survival strategy for victims that has been observed in a variety of hostage taking situations
Cycle of Battering
Tension Building Stage
The Accurate Battering Stage
Contrite and Loving Behavior
Repeated episodes of physical assault on a woman by the person with whom she lives or with whom she has a relationship, often resulting in serious physical and psychologic damage to the woman. Such violence tends to follow a predictable pattern. The violent episodes usually follow verbal argument and accusation and are accompanied by verbal abuse. Almost any subject-housekeeping, money, childrearing-may begin the episode. Over time, the violent episodes escalate in frequency and severity. Most battered women report that they thought that the assaults would stop; unfortunately, studies show that the longer the women stay in the relationship the more likely they are to be seriously injured. Less and less provocation seems to be enough to trigger an attack once the syndrome has begun. The use of alcohol may increase the severity of the assault. The man is more likely to be abusive as the alcohol wears off. Battering occurs in cycles of violence.
"Everyday in the US, more than three women are murdered by their husbands or boyfriends."
This stage is characterized by a series of minor verbal and physical battering events that precede an acute battering incident
a) increases the frequency and severity of the battering incidents
b) decrease in the effectiveness of strategies used by the women to placate their batterers
c) feelings of responsibility on part of the women because they have been unable to control the batterer's behavior
Less physical tan during the tension building stage, tension builds and its ultimately released in an acute battering incident or series of incidents.
a) uncontrollable rage and destructiveness on the part of the batterer, which usually does not end until the victim is severely beaten
b) the triggering of rage by some external event or the internal state of the batterer, as opposed to the behavior of the victim
c) an acute battering incident that is briefer in duration than either the tension building stage or the period of contrite and loving behavior
This is a period of unusual calm and typically follows the acute battering incident, uring which the batterer attempts to make up for the abusive behavior.
a) admission of wrongdoing on the part of the batterer
b) intensive effort on the part of the batterer "to win back" the victim through gifts or family
c) victim's capitulation from anger, fear, hurt and lonelines s to happiness and confidence
d) a strengthening of the bond between the batterer and victim as they both come to the believe, through reinforcement that their relationship can be made to work
Overmier and Seligman (1967) have shown that the prior exposure of dogs to inescapable shock in a Pavlovian harness reliably results in interference with subsequent escape/avoidance learning in a shuttle box. Typically,these dogs do not even escape from shock in the shuttle box. They initially show normal reactivity to shock, but after a few trials, they passively "accept" shock and fail to make escape movements. Moreover, if an escape or avoidance response does occur, it does not reliably predict future escapes or avoidances, as it does in normal dogs.