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Transcript of Huaraz, Peru
PROVINCIA DE HUARAZ
Huaraz forms part of 12 districs of the Ancash Reigon
Peru- South America
35,876.92Km Situated between two mountain ranges, "Las Cordilleras Blancas" & "Las Cordilleras Negras" in the Andes
:3,100 above sea level
Historic Evolution of Huaraz
On December 13 1941
the city of Huaraz suffered a major flood which distroyed a large portion of the 'Modern' part of the city. The turistic hotel, and riverside homes along the Rio Quilcay where distroyed. 5000 people tragically died. This affected the Nothern part of Huaraz. This is where Independencia is today
Huaraz is located on a clearing in a valley, it is defined by the surrounding mountains, and divided by the rivers that run through it. North to south being the Rio Santa
The city area / area of building density exists mainly on the east side of river which runs north to south, and is spreading north of its smaller, bisecting rivers which run east to west. The swirling appearance of the roads outside the city shape suggest a steep terrain and that the city exists on a flat, flood plain between mountains.
The grid pattern of Huaraz indicates that its form is organised rather than organic, which lends itself to the history and origins of forced settlement. Given the density of the city because of its limited flat surface area, the most important parts of the city can be considered as its large green spaces - parks and plazas.
Re- oreientation of the urban expansion of huaraz to the south. but non the less the concretation was to the left hand side of the river Quilcay. the growth of the population was a derect result of those who were living in the country now moving into the city.- in 1970 had its own identitiy, it was formed by the joining of the four ancient towns.
San Fransico, La Soledad, Huarupampa and Belen
alongside the magin left of the River Quilcay and the newer zones.
Before the Earthquake
After the Earthquake
PLAZA DE ARMAS
El Pinar (new housing development)
Plaza De Armas (2008)
Iglesia De Belen 1787
Iglesia De Belen (current)
Hospital Babello 1939
Hospital Victor Ramos Guardian (same site)
During the last decade Huaraz has experienced a high level of Urban growth, the following map shows the areas which have been restored, conserved and completely restored. As you can see they are trying to retain any historical buildings, and are just improving on them as there are little complete reconstructions. Predominatly the Government is trying to conserve and improve what they have left of their historic buildings. With that in mind most of the city of Huaraz is in need of a partial reconstruction or improvement to the existing structure.
The Nolli plan of the town center and area modeled shows the slight changes in grid pattern and building development, which is most noticeable when comparing the two areas above and below the Plaza de Armas.
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Francisco Jose Canas, 1865. Plano topografico de la Ciudad de Piura levantado en 1847 por el Mayor Miguel Zavala. Plano topografico de la Ciudad de Huaraz levantado en 1846 por el Sargto Mayor de Ingenieros D. Francisco Jose Canas. Paz Soldan. Geografia del Peru. Grabado por Delamare, Paris, Calle St. Andre des Arts, 45. Paris Imp. Janson. (Paris, Libreria de Augusto Durand, 1865). 15, pl. VI, 1:5000, Paris: Libreria de Augusto Durand.
Historia y cultura de Huaraz. 2014. [online] Huaraz.es. Available at: <http://www.huaraz.es/historia-y-cultura.php> [Accessed 28 Mar. 2014].
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Jr. San Martin Street View
The view looking between
Plaza De Armas
, you can see the Cathedral in the back ground.
IMPORTANT SITES OF HUARAZ
On the 31st of May 1970- Earthquake hit the majority of the North of Peru. This earthquake destroyed 95% of the city,leaving the squared plan of the Plaza de Armas. The colonial Buildings fell alongside all of the traditional colonial and historic architecture. the sections Most affected where those of the inner city, and prisicley the four older suburbs.
It is said out of the 30,000 inhabitants of Huaraz at the time, one third of them died another third immigrated and the rest stayed. The population that stayed made up most of the outer suburbs of rural/ semi rural areas.
Plaza De Armas
Plaza De Armas
The Plaza de Armas is the name for the main square in many Hispanic American cities.
What caused significant change in the urban morphology between 1846 and today?
The drastic change that is evident between the two maps is due to the 1970 earthquake that caused the almost total destruction of Huaraz. Earthquakes are a regular occurrence in Peru, with a high intensity earthquake happening a minimum of once every 100 years. Earthquakes are seen to expose the existing problems within its cities, as suggested by Margo Sagov in her case study of the reconstruction of Huaraz, that disaster planning must be synonymous with development planning for the people of Huaraz. The effect that the 1970 earthquake had on Huaraz is clearly evident in the two maps shown with 100,400 houses destroyed and an estimated economic loss of US $530 million in damages, however it was the governments reaction and reconstruction plan that defined the new Huaraz.
The previous construction of housing was the leading cause in fatalities with 95% of deaths occurring from the collapse of abode, sun-dried mud brick dwellings, which lead to a
“revolutionary military regime”
in the reconstruction of Huaraz. Many of its residents could not afford to build within the new government building requirements which lead to many squatting in the section of the city adjacent to the Quilcay River and the periphery across the River Santa. Though it was the urban reform within the city center that completely redefined Huaraz leaving little of the previous design. After an estimate of 70%- 90% of the city center was destroyed the government
“revolutionary military regime”
begun, after the removal or corpses and allowing previous permit occupants a few hours to collect some possessions the city center was flattened, leaving only a compact layer of the cities history. This was the repeated over the rest of the city only sparing the
. Within the city center the density was subsequently reduced from 140 to 30-40 people/ha, with many people having been killed or the wealthy who were able to relocate to Lima the density was reduced as well as through the reallocation of the land. The plots divided into equal 200-250m2 through a hierarchy of eligibility, beginning with former property owners down to deserving cases from the housing list. The plan was to have paved streets, services and street lighting amongst other infrastructure, however most of these initatives were only partly completed with Sagov documenting in 1977 that 30,000 people were living poorly in shacks or abodes and 15,000 squatting. The commercial districts, ring road systems, central parks, education facilities and expansion zones were only partly completed, even the city center was yet to be filled in. This progress gives insight into the development of Huaraz and the changes we see between the two maps with priority given to institutional buildings and the periphery dotted with civic architecture and characterless low-rise commercial buildings. Sagov went as far to call the reconstruction of Huaraz a failure.
The erosion of culture disheartened Sagov with the poor reconstruction efforts due to the emphasis placed on expensive reinforced concrete frames, masonry infill construction and the complete flattening of Huaraz, including the demolishment of its 300-year-old cathedral. It was the abandonment of 3000 years of experience in building abode and quincha construction
“sacrificed for a bourgeois notion of status”
that lead to the erosion of indigenous traditions in building. This change in construction, flattening of the city and the governments failure to complete its own regulatory plan is what redefined Huaraz leaving little of the past and reforming it into what we see today. This is the leading cause in the significant changes between the urban morphology of 1846 and today.
Plaza De Armas