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Transcript of Lebanon -
Culture and Traditions
Music and Instruments
Lebanon derived LBN
first appeared in Egyptian text, 3,000 BC
Orginally "Lebna-a-il" from Assyrian,
Egyptians: "highland moutains of Phoenicia"
Other meaning: "scent of the cedars"
Beirut, first appeared in Elba text, 2,400 BC
founded 5,000 years ago.
"phoenix city" - rebuilt seven times!
Birth and Mourning
When a child is born, Meghli is prepared. Made flavoured rice pudding, spiced with cinnamon, anise and caraway, decorated with nuts.
When a child's first tooth appears, we make snayniyeh, dish made of hulled wheat, pomegranate, orange-blossom water and nuts.
After an immediate family member passes away, black clothing is worn for min. of 1 yr, usually 2+.
Fortune telling is done with the remaining coffee grinds of traditional Arabic coffee. The coffee cup is turned upside down for a minimum of 5 minutes and fortune told from the “symbols” marked on the sides of the cup.
"The Evil Eye": meeting someone with blue eyes and a gap in their teeth can cause extreme bad. To avoid this, when complimenting someone, knock on wood or say "Ism el Salib" (in the name of the Cross), "Mashallah" (God willing) or "Yighzi el Aayn" (Make your eyes healthy").
10,452 sq. km. > GTA (7,124 km²) but barely!
Population 4.4 million in 2012
(Christians: 41.5 %, Muslims: 60%, Other: 0.3%)
15 million outside of Lebanon
Brazil: 7 million, Canada: 250 000
Martyr's Square - Beirut
first 2,500 years: independent
Romans (461 years)
Ottamans (409 years)
French (22 years)
Independence: November 22, 1943
difference between written and spoken Arabic, "diglossia"
written: "Modern Standard Arabic", universal
spoken: defined by region, different variations of this Semitic language
3 general dialects:
Arabian: Saudi Arabia,
sub-dialects: Bahraini, Gulf and Hejazi
Egyptian: most common
Levantine: one variety is Lebanese
simple sentence style and structure
In Lebanon, speak mixture of three languages:
Past: Elites: Turkish, Muslims: Arabic,
Today: Arabic, English and French
ex. Hi, Kifik? Ça va
The Two Z's:
traditionally marked end of wedding, today part of the reception.
groom and bride escorted by dancers, gypsy musicians, sword players.
high-pitched ululating sound, marks the end of bachelor hood.
verses in between, beginning with
Rice and petals also thrown at the bride and groom.
Food and Drinks
Mezza: traditional way dinner table is set
equivalent to appetizers, samples various dishes including hommos, baba ghanouj
Arak is the traditional alcoholic beverage.
distilled grapes and flavoured with anise seeds, resembles taste of black licorice.
Eat a lot of unripe fruit (citrus taste) , including grapes (hosrom) and plums (janerik), pistachios and almonds.
But love sweets! Kneffeh, Znoud el Sit (Lady's Arms), Kol w Skhkor (Eat and say Thanks), etc.
Tablah, small hand drum.
Also known as darbukah.
Il Qanun, descendent of the Egyptian Harp.
Al 'Oud, litteraly meaning "branch of wood". Lute in English.
Il Naay, simple open ended reed instrument.
Saint George Cathedral
El Omri Mosque
Maghen Abraham Synagogue
Holy See of Cilicia - Beirut
(Armenian Apostolic Catholicosate)
National Musuem of Beirut
Entrance to Bacchus Temple
Entrance to Temple of Bacchus
Temple of Bacchus
Temple of Jupiter
Best preserved temple in the world, bigger than the Parthenon.
not sure if oldest city in the world, but definitely the longest inhabited city
Faraya - Faqra
Deir el Qamar
third largest city in Lebanon
Sea Castles built by the Crusaders, AD1228
Khan El Franj : Center for Education and Health Care and Conservation of Historic Sites
fourth largest city, largest port
1962, discovered Old Necropolis: old coffins from Roman and Byzantine eras
Roman Hippodrome: horse racing, Emperor political discussions
Phoenician Temple Ruins
Roman Tower Ruins
Kfardebian natural bridge
Faraya Ski Slope
40 minutes from Beirut. natural bridge formed through wind and erosion, 38 m.
Caves in near Nahr el Kalb valley
Upper and lower cave
Can only go through lower cave in a little boat, since it channels an underground river
Upper cave: largest known stalactite
symbol of Lebanon
"Arz el Rab": cedars of the Lord
2,000 years old
Region of Bcharre and Qadisha
Built in 19th century, 30 yrs
Traditional Lebanese and Italian architecture
Summer home of the President
"Monastery of the moon"
originally a Muslim and Christian community, today 80% Christian
First city in Lebanon to have a municipality, 1864
Birth place of many writers and poets
Kathy Ann Najimy