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Chapter 16: Concentration and Strategies for Controlling It
Transcript of Chapter 16: Concentration and Strategies for Controlling It
what is concentration?
Concentration is essential for performing at your best as a student, athlete, surgeon, musician etc
Major component of concentration is the ability to selectively attend to the task at hand while screening out irrelevant and distracting stimuli
Under perfect circumstances, good concentration entails 100% attention focused towards the task
must be in the here and now
requires keeping an appropriate focus over the correct length of time as well as being able to shift attention based on changing demands in performance
attention control training (act) principles
These principles are based on a theory of attentional and interpersonal style (Nideffer, 1976). They are attributed to performance enhancement.
1. Athletes must be able to engage in 4 types of concentration
2. Different sport situations demands different focuses; therefore the athlete must be able to shift accordingly
3. The average person will be able to meet demands on a variety of situations
4. Each person's level of concentration varies depending on biology and genetics
5. An individual's ability to perform depends on two things: 1. appropriateness of dominant attentional style and 2. their level of confidence
6. Choking is a real thing, how an individual reacts is important
7. Alterations in physiological arousal affect concentration
8. Manipulation of concentration can help control arousal (heart rate, respiration rate, muscle tension)
types of concentration
It is important to think of attention as two different types of focus
occurs when an athlete is under pressure and breaks down, making errors, or other unproductive actions
prevention and treatment of choking
Gain control of physiological symptoms
Gain control of attention focus
through rehearsal (to anticipate conditions)
UNREALISTIC to try and eliminate choking entirely
cannot predict every circumstance
can control how to react to chocking
interaction between physiological and attentional processes under stress
process versus outcome
One of the biggest contributors to choking is worrying about the outcome or the importance of a contest while involved in it
Process Cues: related to the process of performing as opposed to the outcome
by maintaining process focus, the outcome will take care of itself
increasing awareness of types of attention
1. Narrow-External Drills
2. Broad-External Drills
3. Narrow-to-Broad External Drills
4. Narrow-Internal Drills
5. Broad Internal Drills
6. Narrow-to-Broad Internal Drills
7. Intention Leads to Attention
External Factors: Strategies to Minimize External Distractions
Strategy 1: Dress Rehearsal
Strategy 2: Rehearsal of Stimulated Competition Experiences
Strategy 3: Mental Rehearsal
internal factors: strategies to stay centered
Strategy 1: Attention Cues and Triggers
Strategy 2: Centering
Strategy 3: TIC-TOC
Strategy 4: Turning Failure into Success
Strategy 5: Use of Brain Bio-Feedback to Enhance Attention
Strategy 6: Increasing Focusing and Refocusing Skills
Strategy 7: Developing Pre-performance and Performance Protocols
Greenlees, I., Thelwell, R., & Holder, T. (2006). Examining the efficacy of the grid exercise as a concentration enhancement exercise. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, (7), 29–39.
"How to Get Your Boyfriends Attention." YouTube. YouTube, 20 Sept. 2013. Web. 21 Oct. 2013.
"Jason Kidd: Court Vision." YouTube. YouTube, 14 Jan. 2011. Web. 21 Oct. 2013.
Williams, Jean M. "Chapter 16 Concentration and Strategies for Controlling It." Applied Sport Psychology: Personal Growth to Peak Performance. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2010. N. pag. Print.
Shifting and Individual Differences
individual strengths and weaknesses
large information load
The Attention Interpersonal Style (TAIS)
assesses concentration and interpersonal skills