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KIN 370 Ch. 1 Basic Terminology

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Rick Armstrong

on 25 January 2013

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Transcript of KIN 370 Ch. 1 Basic Terminology

Objectives: Biomechanical Basis of Human Movement 3rd Edition Ch. 1 Basic Terminology 1. Define mechanics, biomechanics, and kinesiology and differentiate among their uses in the analysis of human movement.
2. Define and provide examples of linear and angular motion.
3. Define kinematics and kinetics.
4. Explain the difference between relative and absolute reference system.
5. Define sagittal, frontal, and transverse planes along with corresponding frontal, sagittal, and longitudinal axes. Provide examples of human movements that occur in each plane.
6. Explain degrees of freedom and provide examples of degrees of freedom associated with numerous joints in the body.
7. Describe the location of segments or landmarks using correct anatomical terms, such as medial, lateral, proximal, and distal.
8. Identify segments by their correct name, define all segmental movement descriptors, and provide specific examples in the body. Quantitative
Numerical
Based on data collected
Equipment necessary
Focus on forces
Examples:
Stress on shoulder during baseball pitch
Compression force on femur during landing Qualitative
Nonnumerical
Based on direct observation
Equipment not necessary
Focus on time and space
Examples:
Rotation of femur during golf swing
Adduction of humerus during freestyle swim Basic Terminology Human Movement Analysis Anatomy
Structure of the body
Focus on structure
Example: Study of biceps brachii
Functional Anatomy
Body components necessary to achieve goal
Focus on function
Example: Analysis of bicep curl Anatomy vs. Functional Anatomy Linear Motion
AKA translation or translational motion
Movement on straight or curved pathway
All points move same distance, same time
Angular Motion
Motion around some point Linear vs. Angular Motion Examples of angular motion. Angular motion of the body, an object, or segment can take place around an axis running through a joint (A), through the center of gravity (B), or about an external axis (C). Examples of linear motion. Ways to apply linear motion analysis include examination of the motion of the center of gravity or the path of a projected object. Linear vs. Angular Motion Both are biomechanical analyses
Kinematics
Examines space and time
Kinetics
Examines forces Kinematics vs. Kinetics Examples of kinetic movement analysis. Kinetic analysis focuses on the cause of movement. The weight lifter demonstrates how lifting can be analyzed by looking at the vertical forces on the ground that produce the lift (linear) and the torques produced at the three lower extremity joints that generate the muscular force required for the lift (Redrawn from Lander, J. et al. [1986]. Biomechanics of the squat exercise using a modified center of mass bar. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 18:469:478). Examples of kinematic movement analysis. Kinematic analysis focuses on the amount and type of movement, the direction of the movement, and the speed or change in speed of the body or an object. The golf shot is presented from two of these perspectives: the angular components of the golf swing (top) and the direction and speed of the club and ball (bottom). Kinematics Kinetics Statics
Examines systems not moving or moving at a constant speed
Equilibrium: no acceleration
Example: Spaceship gliding through space
Dynamics
Examines systems that are being accelerated
Example: Softball pitch Statics vs. Dynamics Axial
Head
Neck
Trunk
Appendicular
Upper extremities
Lower extremities

Reference Position
Anatomical position
Standard reference point
Palms face front Segment names Similar to anatomical position
Arms more relaxed
Palms face inward


Relative angle
Included angle between two segments Fundamental position Medial – toward midline of the body
Lateral – away from midline of the body
Proximal – toward point of attachment
Distal – away from point of attachment
Superior – toward the top of the head
Inferior – toward the bottom of the feet
Anterior – front, ventral
Posterior – back, dorsal
Ipsilateral – on the same side
Contralateral – on opposite sides Relative Position or Direction Flexion
Decreasing joint angle
Extension
Increasing joint angle
Hyperflexion
Flexion beyond normal range
Hyperextension
Extension beyond normal range Flexion & Extension Movement Descriptions Abduction
Moving away from midline
Adduction
Moving toward midline
Hyperabduction
Abduction past 180° point
Hyperadduction
Adduction past 0° point Abduction & Adduction Rotation
*Medial (internal) or lateral (external)
*Right/left for head and trunk only
Lateral flexion
*Head or trunk only
-Example: head tilts sideways
Circumduction
*Movement in a conic fashion
-End of segment moves in a circular path Other Movement Descriptors Horizontal adduction
Combination of flexion and adduction
Horizontal abduction
Combination of extension and abduction
Supination – turn palms frontward
Pronation – turn palms backward
Radial flexion – hand toward thumb
Ulnar flexion – hand toward little finger Specialized Movement Descriptors Elevation – raising the scapula (shrug)
Depression – lowering the scapula
Protraction – move scapulae apart
Retraction – move scapulae together
Upward rotation – bottom of scapula moves away from trunk, top moves toward
Downward rotation – return to normal Movement of the Scapulae Plantarflexion
-Increase angle between foot and shank
Dorsiflexion
-Decrease angle between foot and shank
Inversion
-Lift medial edge of foot
Eversion
-Lift lateral edge of foot Movement Descriptors of the Foot
*Pronation and supination of the feet are not the same as inversion and eversion
*Pronation of the foot
Dorsiflexion at the ankle
Eversion in the tarsals
Abduction of the forefoot
*Supination of the foot
Plantarflexion at the ankle
Inversion in the tarsals
Adduction of the forefoot Necessary for accurate observation and description
Fundamental and anatomical positions
*Axes
Imaginary lines that intersect at right angles
*Origin
Point of intersection of axes
*Relative
Segment movement described relative to the adjacent segment
*Absolute
Axes intersect in the center of a joint Reference Systems *Plane
Flat, two-dimensional surface
*Cardinal planes
Planes positioned at right angles and intersecting the center of mass
*Axis of rotation
Point about which movement occurs
Perpendicular to plane of motion Planes & Axes *Sagittal
-Left and right halves
-Mediolateral axis
*Frontal (coronal)
-Front and back halves
-Anteroposterior axis
*Transverse (horizontal)
-Upper and lower halves
-Longitudinal axis
Many other planes exist Cardinal Planes Movements in the sagittal plane. Sagittal plane movements are typically flexions and extensions or some forward or backward turning exercise. The movements can take place about a joint axis, the center of gravity, or an external axis. Movements in the frontal plane. Segmental movements in the frontal plane about anteroposterior joint axes are abduction and adduction or some specialized side-to-side movement. Frontal plane movements about the center of gravity or an external point involve sideways movement of the body, which is more difficult than movement to the front or back. Movements in the transverse plane. Most transverse plane movements are rotations about a longitudinal axis running through a joint, the center of gravity, or an external contact point. Degree of freedom
Number of planes in which a joint has the ability to move
1 degree of freedom
Uniaxial
Example: Elbow
2 degrees of freedom
Biaxial
Example: Wrist
3 degrees of freedom
Triaxial
Example: Shoulder Degrees of Freedom
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