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BIO121-CHP4

The Integumentary System
by

Kimberly Fournier

on 9 September 2013

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Transcript of BIO121-CHP4

Chapter 4 - The Integumentary System PowerPoint® Lecture Presentations prepared by Steven Bassett
Southeast Community College, Lincoln, Nebraska Adapted by Kimberly Fournier, for BIO121, The University of Rhode Island Structure & Function Components Skin (cutaneous membrane) is made of two divisions

*Epidermis

*Dermis

Hypodermis (subcutaneous layer) is deep to the dermis

*Accessory structures
Hair, nails, exocrine glands Integumentary Structure and Function Functions include:

*Physical protection
*Regulation of body temperature
*Excretion of products
*Synthesis of products
*Sensation
*Immune defense Integumentary Structure and Function *Cutaneous membrane
Epidermis
Dermis

* Accessory structures
Hair follicles
Exocrine glands
Nails Integumentary Structure and Function The integumentary system is composed of:

*Skin
*Hair
*Nails
*Sweat glands
*Oil glands
*Mammary glands Introduction *The skin is the most visible organ of the body

*Clinicians can tell a lot about the overall health of the
body by examining the skin Introduction Figure 4.1 Functional Organization of the Integumentary System (Part 2 of 2) Figure 4.1 Functional Organization of the Integumentary System (Part 1 of 2) Figure 4.1 Functional Organization of the Integumentary System Figure 4.2 Components of the Integumentary System Skin color

Due to:

*Dermal blood supply

*Thickness of stratum corneum

*Various concentrations of carotene and melanin The Epidermis Epidermal ridges

*Stratum germinativum forms epidermal ridges

*Ridges (dermal papillae) extend into the dermis

*Creates ridges we call fingerprints The Epidermis Layers of the Epidermis

*Stratum granulosum
Keratinocytes produce lots of keratin

*Stratum corneum
Superficial layer
Consists of interlocking, dehydrated, dead cells The Epidermis Layers of the Epidermis

*Stratum basale
Location of melanocytes
Cells in this area are undergoing active reproduction

*Stratum spinosum
Keratinocytes are bound together by desmosomes The Epidermis Table 4.1 Epidermal Layers Layers of the Epidermis

*Stratum basale (stratum germinativum) (*Deepest layer)

*Stratum spinosum

*Stratum granulosum

*Stratum lucidum

*Stratum corneum (*Most superficial layer) The Epidermis There are four cell types found in the epidermis

*Keratinocytes
Produces a tough protein called keratin

*Melanocytes
Pigment cells located deep in the epidermis
Produce melanin (skin color)

*Merkel cells
Sensory cells

*Langerhans cells
Fixed macrophages The Epidermis Thick and thin skin

*Thick skin
Found on palms and soles
Made of five layers of cells

*Thin skin
Found on the rest of the body
Made of four layers of cells The Epidermis Figure 4.5 The Epidermal Ridges of Thick Skin Figure 4.4c Thin and Thick Skin Figure 4.3 The Structure of the Epidermis Figure 4.6 Melanocytes Figure 4.4ab Thin and Thick Skin The Epidermis Figure 4.8 Lines of Cleavage of the Skin Lines of Cleavage

*Fibers have a tendency to organize themselves in a parallel
fashion

*In certain areas of the body, there is a pattern

*To reduce scar formation (extensive damage to the fibers),
surgeons try to cut parallel to the lines of cleavage The Dermis Stretch Marks

*Extensive stretching during pregnancy causes reticular fibers
to break

*The skin does not recoil

*The skin wrinkles and creases resulting in stretch marks The Dermis Wrinkles:

*Under normal circumstances, the fibers of the reticular layer of the skin
stretch and recoil.

*Skin wrinkles are due to:
Age
UV light The Dermis Reticular layer (details)

Consists of:

*Interwoven network of dense irregular connective tissue

*Hair follicles

*Sweat glands

*Sebaceous glands The Dermis Papillary layer (details)

Consists of:

*Dermal papillae

*Capillaries

*Nerve axons The Dermis The dermis consists of two layers

*Papillary layer
Superficial dermis

*Reticular layer
Deep dermis The Dermis Figure 4.7b The Structure of the Dermis and the Subcutaneous Layer Figure 4.7a The Structure of the Dermis and the Subcutaneous Layer Figure 4.2 Components of the Integumentary System The Dermis Consists of:

*Adipose tissue

*Major blood vessels

Due to the location of the vessels, we have terms such as:

*Hypodermic needles

*Subcutaneous injections The Subcutaneous Layer *The subcutaneous layer is deep to the dermis

*Also called the hypodermis layer

*Not technically considered a part of the integument

*Helps stabilize the integument The Subcutaneous Layer Figure 4.2 Components of the Integumentary System The Hypodermis Accessory Structures Nails

Function

*Provide protection for the tips of the fingers and toes

Structure

*Free edge

*Lateral nail fold

*Lunula

*Eponychium

*Hyponychium Accessory Structures Sweat glands

*Merocrine glands:

*Also known as eccrine glands

*Found all over the body

*Found in high concentrations on the palms and soles

*Produce sweat for cooling purposes Accessory Structures Sweat glands

*Apocrine glands:

*High concentration in the armpit and nipple regions

*Produce an odorous secretion

*Secretions may contain pheromones

*These are the secretions that babies smell in order to detect and
“feel safe” with mom

*Males have these secretions as well Accessory Structures Sebaceous glands

*Secrete sebum to lubricate the skin

*Found all over the body except for the palms and soles

*Found in high concentrations on the forehead, face, and
upper back

*If the ducts become blocked, acne may occur Accessory Structures Glands in the skin

*Sebaceous glands

*Sweat glands
Apocrine glands
Ceruminous glands (a type of apocrine gland)
Mammary glands (a type of apocrine gland)
Merocrine glands

*Gland function:
Lubricates the epidermis, excretes waste, assists in hermoregulation Accessory Structures Hair growth

*Active phase

*Regression phase

*Resting phase

*Reactivation phase Accessory Structures Hair color

Due to:

*Variation in melanin production by the melanocytes

*Melanin production decreases with age

Influenced by:

*Genetics

*Hormones

*Environmental factors Accessory Structures Functions of Hair
*Protection from UV light

*Insulation

*Guards entrance to nose and ears

*Movement of the hair sends impulses via nerves to the brain
Such as when a bug is crawling on your arm

*Contraction of the arrector pili muscles
Results in goose bumps Accessory Structures *Hair
Made of keratin

*Hair follicles
Cells are layered in concentric rings Accessory Structures Sweat glands

*Mammary glands:

*A special type of apocrine gland

*Produce milk under the control of hormones from the pituitary gland

*Ceruminous glands:

*A special type of apocrine gland

*Found only in the ear canal

*Produce cerumen (ear wax)

*Provide minimal protection associated with the ear Accessory Structures Types of Hair

*Vellus: Covers most of the body

*Intermediate: Covers arms and legs

*Terminal: Covers the head Accessory Structures Figure 4.11 The Hair Growth Cycle Figure 4.15a Structure of a Nail Figure 4.14a Sweat Glands Figure 4.9a Accessory Structures of the Skin Figure 4.14b Sweat Glands Figure 4.15c Structure of a Nail Figure 4.10bc Hair Follicles Figure 4.10a Hair Follicles Figure 4.9b Accessory Structures of the Skin Figure 4.13 Sebaceous Glands and Follicles Figure 4.12 A Classification of Exocrine Glands in the Skin Aging & The Integumentary System *Epidermis becomes thinner
*Dermis becomes thinner
*Number of Langerhans’ cells decreases
*Vitamin D production declines
*Melanocyte activity declines
*Glandular activity declines
*Hair follicles stop functioning
*Skin repair slows down Aging and the Integumentary System Figure 4.16 The Skin during the Aging Process Announcements * Chapter 5 for next time

* Exam Instruction Quiz moved
to Friday 2/15!! PowerPoint® presentation provided by © Pearson Education. Inc.
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