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Child Health and Immunizations

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Lindsay L

on 13 December 2012

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Transcript of Child Health and Immunizations

Children's Health and Immunizations By: Lindsay Lehman What are immunizations? Immunizations are effective, preventive, medicines, which help someone become immune to a disease, usually through a vaccine. This process, immunization, controls life threatening diseases and prevents millions of people from becoming ill and dying each year. It is essential for children to have to prevent them from becoming sick. They have been proven to improve health and save lives. Many countries in Africa and third world countries have poor child health and immunizations, where many children die each day from preventable diseases. What organizations are assisting countries in immunizations? UNICEF gives vaccines for deadly diseases to children in poor countries.
World Bank gives underdeveloped countries loans for advances in health and immunizations
World Health Organization (WHO) is similar to UNICEF and sets goals to eradicate different diseases in new places around the world. For example, by 2020, WHO hopes to eliminate Measles in five regions.
Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) focuses on getting rid of Polio globally.
GAVI is an organization that focuses on introducing new and underused vaccines to some of the world's poorest countries. It is sponsored by Bill and Melinda Gates and is partners with UNICEF, WHO, and World Bank.

UNICEF, World Bank, and WHO believe that by the year 2020, Measles and Polio will destroyed. What do most countries do to immunize against diseases? Most countries use four steps or strategies to eradicate preventable diseases.
1) Strengthen routine immunization program
2) National immunization days
3) Strengthen disease surveillance
4) Mop up immunization

This process helped India eliminate cases of Polio. As of April 2012, there have been no more reported cases of Polio in India since January 2011. Polio in India India has had a long history with Polio. India has always had more cases of Polio than any other country until the 1970's when immunization programs began to diminish the disease. By 1990 there were only 50-100 thousand cases of Polio in India. The GPEI helped to eliminate Polio in India. They also used to four steps to get rid of Polio. India has gone more than a year without a reported case of Polio. The last reported case was in January 2011. Measles Measles is the leading cause of death in young children eve though there is a safe and inexpensive vaccine to prevent the disease. In 1980, before there was a vaccine for this disease, there were around 2.6 million deaths a year. Within ten years of the vaccination for Measles, the death rate decreased by 74%. Measles is most common in developing countries in Africa and Asia where there are poorly nourished children with weak immune systems and insufficient vitamin A. 95% of the deaths from Measles are in countries with low income per person and weak health infrastructure. However, it is very easy to prevent Measles. Vaccinations, good nutrition, and hydration are just three easy ways. Sufficient vitamin A can reduce deaths by 50%. Why do so many children die from Measles? What is WHO doing to eradicate Measles? The WHO's goal is to reduce child mortality by 2/3 from 1990-2015. They would like to cut child mortality from Measles by 95% and to eliminate measles in five regions by 2020. WHO is also participating in the MR Initiative. The MR Initiative is an effort by WHO, UNICEF, American Red Cross, United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Untied Nations Foundation to control Measles and Rubella. Bibliography "Rubella and Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS)." World Health Organization. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Dec. 2012. <www.who.int/immunization_monitoring/diseases "CDC - Global Health - Video: Global Immunization: Polio in India." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Dec. 2012. <http://www.cdc.gov/globalhealth/video/polio "Media Centre." Measles. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Dec. 2012. <www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs286 "UNICEF - Search Results." UNICEF - UNICEF Home. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Dec. 2012. <http://www.unicef.org/search/search.php?querystring_en=children%27s+immunization&go.x=0&go.y=0>. Grass Roots Hepatitis B (Hep B) " China - Country hub - GAVI Alliance." GAVI Alliance - Partners' Forum 2012 - GAVI Alliance. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Dec. 2012. <http://www.gavialliance.org/country/china "UNICEF - Search Results." UNICEF - UNICEF Home. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Dec. 2012. <http://www.unicef.org/search/search.php?querystring_en=hepatitis+B+in+china&go.x=0& Most people don't die from Measles, but complications with the disease. Some of these complications include blindness, diarrhea and dehydration, ear infections, respiratory infections, pneumonia, and/or encephalitis. Wang, Lixia, Junhua Li, Haiping Chen, Fangjun Li, Gregory L Armstrong, Carib Nelson, Wenyuan Ze, and Craig N Shapiro. "Hepatitis B vaccination of newborn infants in rural China: evaluation of a village-based, out-of-cold-chain delivery strategy." World Health Organization. N. Hepatitis B is an infection that attacks the liver and can cause lifelong infection, cirrhosis, liver cancer, liver failure, and death. This disease is very common in parts of Asia, especially China. In 2007, China was ranked 22nd on the child mortality rate for children under age five. Once China began to make mandatory vaccinations for newborn children, the death rate decreased tremendously. By 2011, China was ranked 107 on the child mortality rate for children under age five. Hepatitis B is responsible for around 600,000 deaths each year from chronic cirrhosis and liver cancer cause by Hepatitis B. There is a vaccine for Hepatitis B. To prevent Hepatitis from continuing to spread in China, newborns are vaccinated within 24 hours of their birth and again at age one and a half. China has made this law because 90% of children under one develop chronic infections. 30-50% of children between one and four develop chronic infections. The major way Hepatitis B is spread is perinatal, or from the mother to the infant at birth. This form of transmission is fairly common since around 8-10% of the adult population of China is infected with Hepatitis B. The vaccine for Hepatitis B is 95% effective and can be stored without refrigeration as long as it is labeled with VVMs. VVMs are heat sensitive labels that change color with exposure to excessive heat. How is Hepatitis B similar and different to HIV? Hepatitis B and HIV are both STD s. They are both transmitted from shared needles, blood, bodily fluids and sexual contact with an infected person. However, Hepatitis B is 50-100 times more infective than HIV and Hepatitis B can survive outside of the body for seven days and still infect someone if it can get inside the body within those seven days. Political Cartoons This cartoon is showing how American children must get an abundance of vaccines before they are allowed to go to school. The caption says, "Do you ever feel we're having too many inoculations forced on us?" This demonstrates how American kids take their immunizations for granted. In this cartoon, the woman on the left is apart of anti-vaccination nation, where she believes that it isn't right to have her kids get vaccines. The doctors are trying to "inject" the facts into her head about why immunizations are good, but she isn't listening, as he expresses by saying, "She's immune!" The doctor on the far right says, "It's an epidemic!" for two reasons. One, it's an epidemic that so many people are against immunizations in the U.S. when people in other countries are literally dying for some. Also, if this woman doesn't immunize her children, they could get sick and start an epidemic.
One grass roots project that would be easy to do or to start is to go to your pediatrician's office and place buckets to collect money in. Every time a child gets a shot there, the parents can donate or decided to donate a dollar to go towards immunizations for children all around the world. The nurse could give the child and their parents a flyer describing what the money would go to and how it could affect and change the lives of children in poor countries. The money would go to measles, polio, and many other different kind of vaccines. Before sending the money or vaccinations, you could choose to give each country different vaccinations based on which diseases are most prominent or deadly in each area or you could choose an organization such as UNICEF, WHO, World Bank, GPEI, GAVI, etc. to donate your money to. A small donation could make a big difference in the life of a child.
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