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Music Cognition (2015)

Collaborative concept map for PSYC 4541, Summer 2015, CU–Boulder.
by

Kris Shaffer

on 13 June 2016

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Transcript of Music Cognition (2015)

(musical)
events
meter
keys
pitch
primitive
grouping
learned
grouping
habituation
short-term
memory

chunking
recall v.
recognition
schemata
implicit
memory
episodic
memory
concept.
categories
nuance
priming
inter-
ference
cuing
An interaction between real time experience and memory is called recognition. When both of these align with the same information (repetitive patterns of events), habituation is possible.
habituation may occur with repetition of learned groups
Chunking aids in future learned grouping and long-term memory storage.
Chunking is a way of maximizing our memory load in short term memory. Chunking allows the brain to store more data in STM.
Short-term memory is a component of working memory, but not all of working memory is conscious. Unrehearsed elements in short-term memory are part of working memory, for example.
Because primitive auditory grouping involves bottom-up processing, it requires the immediate present of sensory auditory memory — echoic memory.
Echoic memory automatically processes events.
Meter provides temporal structure to musical events.
A musical event can be one acoustical wave entering the external auditory meatus. When these waves are 50 msec apart or less, they fuse (“Event fusion”) together to form a pitch or frequency.
Nuance is the variation that takes place inside of the boundaries of a musical category.
semantic
memory
working
memory

long-term
memory

echoic
memory

feature
extraction
perceptual
binding
percept.
categories
Feature extraction requires echoic memory because it must happen early in the perception process, before higher-level coding and recognition can take place.
Perceptual categorization is a psych mode of perception wherein things are perceived as belonging to categories with boundaries. Conceptual categorization then groups the separate objects or events of perceptual categorization into higher-level categories which consist of abstractions of memories of many objects or events that are somehow related.
Perceptual categorization reduces the large amount of continuous sensory information of echoic memory into a small number of discrete categories. These categorized events then activate previously established representations in long-term memory.
Cuing involves recollection when we intentionally try to cue a memory. Cuing involves recognition when an event in the environment automatically acts as its own cue.
Interference takes place when repeated environmental factors cue something in long-term memory multiple times, making it difficult to recall particular events within that given situation.
Feature extraction is part of the process of perceptual binding. The stimulus from the environment is perceived by the brain and then the brain draws out important features and binds them into the appropriate perceptual categories.
Recall and recognition are both ways we retrieve information from long-term memory.
Priming is a part of implicit memory. This entails recalling memories through low level activation of memories associated to that memory. These are semi-activated memories.
When we recall memories from our episodic memory, each time we recall the same memory, but only a snapshot of the last time that we recalled it. The more and more that we try and recall this similar memory, the more interference occurs, which slowly alters the memory over time.
Cuing is the triggering of a memory association to help recall or recognize another memory from long-term memory.
secondary
parameters
primary
parameters

limbic
contrast
conditional
probability
A musical Key is a function of pitch. Pitch gives the perceived frequencies "highness" or "lowness". These pitches, when put into intervals of a tuning system, creates a central pitch or "Tonic Pitch" which in turn, can be used to establish the musical Key.
tonality
syntax
Tonality is the arrangement of pitches so that one pitch predominates and is the strongest and main element in a piece of music.
Primary parameters include categories such as pitch, harmony, and duration. Tonality is an aspect of pitch, specifically the arrangement of pitches within a piece of music.
Primary parameters are central to the creation of syntax because they are the aspects of music by which patterns are identified and related to each other.
sectional
boundaries
Sectional boundaries are created when there is a significant amount of change in the pattern of the primary parameter to where the new pattern is dissimilar to the existing pattern.
Pitch is one example of a primary parameter.
The ability to learn the central pitch of a piece (a critical aspect of tonality) is learned, but is learned implicitly.
ITPRA
theory
Limbic contrast is the difference between the reaction response and appraisal response in the ITPRA theory.
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