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English Language Learners
Transcript of English Language Learners
Reform in American
Public Education Created by Scott Adams,
Robbin Edwards, Hanako Kawamoto, Meg Warnock & Natalie Messmore Before we Begin, Acronyms to Know... AMAO - Annual Measurable Achievement Objective
AYP - Adequate Yearly Progress
ELD - English Language Development
ELL - English Language Learners
ENL - English as a New Language
ESL - English as a Second Language
ESOL - English Speakers of Other Languages
FEP - Fluent English Proficiency
ILP - Individual Learning Plan
INTESOL - Indiana Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages L1 - the student's First Language, native language, or mother tongue
L2 - the Second Language learned in addition to the first language
LAS Links - English proficiency assessment that tests for oral, reading,
and writing fluency
LEP - Limited-English Proficient
NABE - National Association of Bilingual Education
NCLB - No Child Left Behind Act of 2001
TESOL - Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages
Title III of NCLB - requires annual improvement of students' English
PL221 - continuous improvement for all students
TBE - Transitional Bilingual Education Μαθαίνοντας τις νέες γλώσσες, ειδικά εκείνοι με τους διαφορετικούς κανόνες γραμματικής και η σύνταξη, είναι εξαιρετικά δύσκολοι. Ακόμα κι αν σας έδωσα ένα έτος για να μάθω τα ελληνικά, θα ήσαστε πιθανώς μακριά από ρευστό. Τόσο πώς μπορούμε να αναμείνουμε τους αγγλικούς μαθαίνοντας σπουδαστές για να είμαστε αρκετά ρευστούς να δώσουμε τις εξετάσεις και τις σειρές μαθημάτων που διδάσκουν απλώς στα αγγλικά. Μπορείτε να διαβάσετε αυτό; Πώς αισθάνεστε κατά την ανάγνωση αυτού. Learning new languages, especially those with different grammar rules and syntax, is extremely difficult. Even if I gave you a year to learn Greek, you would probably be far from fluent. So how can we expect English Learning students to be fluent enough to take tests and courses that are solely taught in English. Can you read this? How do you feel when reading this?
Translation Website used: http://www.worldlingo.com/en/products_services/worldlingo_translator.html
It's all Greek to me... 1839 - Ohio is the first state with a bilingual education law for German speaking students; this is followed by Louisiana for French in 1847, and the New Mexico Territory in 1850 for Spanish
During WWI, fears about loyalty to the United States surfaced, so the government wanted to "Americanize" immigrants 1968 - Title VII Bilingual Education Act is a provision of ESEA, and provides federal funding for native language instruction
1974 - Lau v. Nichols - requires schools to take steps to overcome language barriers impeding children's access to curriculum; opposition believed that "it's the children's problem because they can't learn English" (Nieto,2009) 1974 - Equal Education Opportunity Act - civil rights laws require education programs that offer equal opportunities for LEP children
1981 - Secretary of Education Terrell Bell tabled proposed guidelines implementing Lau decision
1985 - Sect. of Ed. William Bennett said bilingual education has failed; programs such as math, science, and special education were all criticized during this era as well 1980s - Reagan administration "led a major campaign against bilingual education and in favour of a 'back to basics' education." Thought we were at risk of being "balkanized" and they blamed those non-English speaking individuals for the risk. (Nieto, 2009)
1988 - the "English-Only Movement" helped pass laws in 14 states making English the official language
2002 - Title VII amended, the English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement Act (Title III of NCLB) replaces the Bilingual Education Act The History of
Bilingual Education What's the difference between teaching Bilingual Education and just teaching English to Language Learners? Teaching Bilingual Education
"Main idea is to provide part of the instruction in the student's native language in order to ease her/his transition into the mainstream" classroom. (Nieto, 2009)
It is the school district's responsibility to provide the necessary programs and accommodations to children who do not speak English. Teaching English to Language Learners
Children are taught English, but only in English.
Focus is to learn English, not necessarily learn the content of other subjects.
Students are divided into 5 Levels of Proficiency
Students are quickly mainstreamed; in some cases they are only receiving 1 year of English Learning classes. Level 1: Beginner
Classifies pictures without verbalizing logic behind them
Makes picture collages
Builds picture dictionary based on content
Points to an appropriate response
Creates a pictorial graph/chart
Uses body language Level 2: Early Intermediate
All of Level 1 and ...
Labels charts with key vocabulary
Labels pictures with single words or phrases
Able to supply yes/no, either/or responses
Sequences events (time/order)
Uses invented spelling
Utilizes graphic organizers Level 3: Intermediate
All of Level 2 and ...
Classifies and gives reasons in simple sentences
Gives simple explanations
Outlines topics using time sequence, main idea, and supporting details
Conducts simple interviews Level 4: Advanced
All of Level 3 and ...
Reasoning expressed more fluently
Answers how and why questions
Predicts the outcome of events
Criticizes and justifies
Drafts/edits assignments Level 5: Fluent and Proficient
Students speak, understand, read, write, and comprehend in English without difficulty and display academic achievement comparable to native English speaking peers. Levels of English Proficiency The Impact of NCLB on ELL Students Interviewed 6 ELL Students:
Maple Grove Elem.: 2nd Grade (2003)
Center Grove Middle School North
Center Grove High School: Sophomore
Hamilton Southeastern High School: Sophomore (2009)
Lutheran High School: Freshman (2009)
Kokomo High School: Junior (2007)
Central Grove Middle School Central: 7th grade (2003)
Central Grove High School
Belzer Middle School: 7th grade (2002)
Lawrence Central High School
Hamilton Southeastern High School Perception of NCLB?
0/6 students had heard of NCLB. ESL Class?
Maple Grove Elem. School
Center Grove Middle School Central
Belzer Middle School
Center Grove High School
Lawrence Central High School
Lutheran High School
Kokomo High School
Hamilton Southeastern High School Maple Grove Elementary School Center Grove Middle School Central Belzer Middle School Center Grove High School Lawrence Central High School 1 class every day
Pulled out of class for ESL classes
Taught by English teachers who were not specialists in ESL 1 class every day
Pulled out of class for ESL classes
Taught by ESL teachers 1 class every day
Pulled out of class
Taught by ESL teachers (1 American, 1 Hispanic teacher) 2 hours of class every other day
Pulled out of class
Taught by ESL teachers (2 American, 1 Hispanic teacher) 2 to 3 classes a week
Pulled out of class
Taught by English teacher The ESL Class Standardized Tests Student A
While in the ESL program, he was excused from taking ISTEP
Extra time was given for international students taking GQE
Did not need to take any standardized test
Extra time was given for international students taking GQE
Took ISTEP with dictionary (Central Grove Middle School)
Took GQE with American students (without any extra time)
While in the ESL program, he was excused from taking ISTEP (Belzer Middle School)
Took ISTEP with American students (without extra time Responses from Westfield High School Teachers Concerning
ELL Students Do you feel our ELL students are at a disadvantage with the testing associated with NCLB?
"The accommodations are extreme and place yet another burden on the teacher, however they are necessary in order to guarantee the success of the student."
"I imagine myself (I attended high school in Belgium) trying to take a standardized test in French or Flemish just a few years after having moved, and there is no way I could have done so. If we want to know what they know, we need to give them more accommodations. If we want to see if they are picking up English, the current path is appropriate."
"I can't imagine how frustrating chemistry is when they don't know English well. It is hard enough without the disadvantage."
"Very much so with high-stakes testing for graduation purposes, especially if the waiver process goes away." Responses from Westfield High School Teachers Concerning
ELL Students For those of you who have been teaching more than 10 years, how has your teaching changed since the enactment of NCLB in 2001?
"My teaching hasn't really changed that much, just more data collection. Good teaching happened before NCLB despite what the politicians think."
"The one thing that stands out to me is that we are much more focused on data then when I started teaching. That's the positive. The negative is that standardized tests dictate what and how we teach much more than before NCLB."
"Teachers have to be much more responsible to the public. All actions must be validated. The teacher is no longer the absolute ruler of the classroom." Westfield High School Services offered to ELL students:
Levels 1, 2 & 3: ENL for primary English classes
Language Lab: for certain accommodations
Those not fluent are given accommodations, such as extra time on tests, use of a dictionary, small group testing, and projects simplified. 2009-2010
1701 Students enrolled
94.7% Graduation rate
2% Asian & Pacific Islander
Passed most recent AYP Indiana School
for the Deaf Overview
2009-2010 Enrollment: 336 students
This enrollment includes students K-12
During 2008-2009, 51.7% of the senior class graduated from high school with a diploma. The rest earned a certificate of attendance. Interview with Dr. Mary Glenn Rinne
.....our students are at an unfair disadvantage because their native language is American Sign Language.
.....the English test is fair only because it is testing their English skills. I do question the validity of the Science and Social Studies tests because they are typically given in their second language at a reading level at least 4 levels above what they are comfortable with.
.....we have students who arrive with little or no education due to lack of language skills, having never even acquired a first language. A lot of our deaf students are born in homes where there is no one who can communicate with them.
…..the Indiana School for the Deaf is currently in year three of our probation. The Indiana School for the Blind has already been given exemption after five years of failing its AYP. I feel strongly the Indiana School for the Deaf will be given the same exemption, we tend to be grouped with the Blind school.
Heavy emphasis is placed on teaching reading through sound. In fact, many state assessments in reading include questions about sound, thus reducing a deaf child's ability to score well on the test. So of course, passing the tests becomes a difficult challenge for deaf children. Another problem is the requirement that children must be proficient readers of the English language by grade 3. There are many reasons well known to educators of the deaf why deaf children often do not read by grade 3. One of the main reasons is deaf children tend to learn English at a later age versus starting at birth. Under No Child Left Behind, meeting that goal will be a challenge for many special schools and programs for deaf children, especially in the short time frame provided (Steffan, R.)
Dominant Narrative Counter Narrative Responses
from Zionsville The Future of ELL Reform Recommendations for Teachers:
Present ELLs with challenging curricular content.
Set high expectations for ELLs.
Use technology effectively.
Recognize socio-cultural factors.
Position native language and home environments as resources.
Teach ELLs in grades K-8 the basics of academic literacy.
Teach ELLs in secondary school, like their K-8 peers, to simultaneously develop their skills with academic English and learn content in a variety of disciplines.
Recognize the difference between ELLs and under-prepared students in higher education. Recommendations for schools and policymakers
Delineate explicit expectations for ELLs.
Provide research-based professional development for teachers of ELLs.
Attend to process and consequences of assessment of ELLs.
Recognize ELLs' heterogeneity.
Avoid testing in English exclusively.
Use multiple assessments for varying purposes.
Adhere to ethical principles of testing.
(National Council of Teachers of English, 2008) Questions for Consideration Where will we be in 2014?
Are we really going to close down all of the schools if 100% of students don't pass state tests in English and Math?
What will happen to all our English Language Learners?
If NCLB continues on its current path with ELLs, what future do they have?
Are we preparing our students to recognize different cultures, languages, and societies, and embrace them for what they can contribute to society?
What will become of NCLB? Will it keep being "reformulated" but be given a newer, trendier name? Works Cited
Aud, S., Hussar, W., Planty, M., Snyder, T., Bianco, K., Fox, M., Frolich, L., Kemp, J., Drake, L. (2010, June). The Condition of Education 2010 (Indicator 4 & 5). Retrieved fromhttp://nces.ed.gov/pubs2010/2010028_2.pdf
Cawthon, Stephanie W. (2004). Schools for the deaf and the no child left behind act. American Annals of the Deaf, 149(4), 314-323.
Center on Education Policy (n.d.) Ten Big Effects of the No Child Left Behind Act on Public Schools.
Escamilla, K. (1989, March). A Brief History of Bilingual Education in Spanish. ERIC Digest. Retrieved from http://www.ericdigests.org/pre-9211/brief.htm
Indiana Department of Education: DOE Compass. The Indiana School for the Deaf. Retrieved from http://compass.doe.in.gov/Dashboard.aspx?view=SCHOOL&val=C695&desc=Indiana+School+For+The+Deaf.
Indiana Department of Education. (n.d.). Office of English Language Learning & Migrant Education Guidelines to Satisfy Legal Documents. Retrieved from http://www.doe.in.gov/lmmp/docs/lepguidelines.pdf
Indiana Department of Education. Office of School Data. Disaggregated Student Results by Subject. Retrieved from
Indiana Department of Education (n.d.) Title III, Annual Measurable Achievement Objectives, Background and Performance Target Summary. Retrieved from http://www.doe.in.gov/assessment/docs/AMAO_Background_and_Performance_Target_Summary.pdf
Indiana University News Tips. Adequate Yearly Progress in Indiana School. (2006) Retrieved November 5, 2010.
Jennings, J. and Stark Rentner, D. (2006, October). Ten Big Effects of the No Child Left Behind Act on Public Schools, Phi Delta Kappan, 88 (2, 110-113). Retrieved from http://www.pdkintl.org/kappan/k_v88/k0610toc.htm
Landis, Kris. (2010, October, 15). Personal Interview.
Moores, Donald F. (2005). The no child left behind and the individuals with disabilities education acts: The uneven impact of partially funded federal mandates on education of deaf and hard of hearing children. American Annals of the Deaf, 150(2), 75-79.
National Association of Bilingual Education (1998, Spring). History of Bilingual Education. Rethinking Schools, 12 (3). Retrieved from http://www.rethinkingschools.org/archive/12_03/langhst.shtml
National Council of Teachers of English (2008). A Policy Research Brief. English Language Learners. Retrieved from http://www.ncte.org/library/NCTEFiles/Resources/PolicyResearch/ELLResearchBrief.pdf
Nieto, D. (2009, Spring). A Brief History of Bilingual Education in the United States. Perspectives on Urban Education, 6 (1). Retrieved from http://www.urbanedjournal.org/archive/V6I1-Immigration&UrbanSchools/Vol.%206%20Immigration%20Issues%20in%20Urban%20Schools/61-72--Nieto.pdf
Plucker, J., Spradlin, T.,Cline, K., Wolf, K. (2005) No Child Left Behind Spring 2005 Implementation Update. Center for Evaluation and Policy. Vol.3, (6) Spring 2005.
Steffan R. (2004). Navigating the difficult waters of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001: What it means for education of the deaf. American Annals of the Deaf, 149(1), 46–50.
U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2010). The Condition of Education 2010 (NCES 2010-028), Retrieved from Indicator 5. "Public education demands a capacious critique, one that encourages both dissent and invention, fury and hope. Public edcuation is bountiful, crowded, messy, contradictory, exhuberant, tragic, frustrating, and remarkable. We need an expanded vocabulary, adequate to both the daily joy and sorrow of our public schools. And we are in desperate need of rich, detailed images of possibility."
Mike Rose, Possible Lives: The Promise of Public Education In America (2006) Total of 34 ELL students between all schools. Not all are technically ELL students.
Zionsville's program began in 1995 with the first student from China. There were no funds for any type of program.
At that time, there was no real awareness of an ELL program. In fact, the superintendent at the time decided to call it ENFL or English Not as a First Language.
Since Zionsville Schools do not have enough ELL students to receive funds, it is part of the Wabash Valley Consortium which aggregates students, so more schools can receive funds.
Speaking to the ELL about challenges she says there are quite a few. She notes the difficulties with NCLB and ELL students. They are held to the same standards as students who don't require any additional services. This puts the ELL students in an unfair situation since they are not English proficient, yet they have to take these standardized. Moreover, it is challenging for the schools becasue their scores are figured into overall data for AYP. Questionable situation:
Two new students enrolled at Zionsville High School this fall.
They are from Kuwait, are in 9th and 11th grade and are LEP/L1.
They enrolled mid-semester and are auditing their classes.
They are both pulled out one period/day for ELL instruction and then are using Rosetta Stone during another period.
Next semester they will begin taking classes for credit and teachers are aware that they need to make accomodations. QUESTIONS TO OLGA TUCHMAN,
English Language Learning Specialist at the DOE
Students are scheduled creatively to get the most of credits.
Eng/LA can be recieved through their English Development class, if there are enough students
Teachers need to provide modifications and accomodations as stated in ILP
Grade on modified homework and classwork at levels 1-4
They have to take ISTEP and can have the allowable accomodations
They need to receive credit by being scheduled for all electives for credit
Cannot grade ELL students at 100% of work mainstream students do; teachers need to grade at 40,50,60%, and as they learn more, then adjust grading.
They will graduate, but might need an extra year of high school
Though their education has been greatly modified, "they will do fine in life, and even college" We are telling ELL's that their language is substandard and that English is the dominant language.
This makes students feel that their language, thus their culture, is inferior.
We are diminishing their identity, culture, and ethnicity by dismissing the value of their native language.
It seems our main goal is that we just want everyone to speak "proper English".
We are not concerned about the student as a person who does and will contribute to society. Richard Rodriquez - Author, Journalist, Fulbright Scholar
Born to an Immigrant family in California
In his autobiography Hunger of Memory he writes about being in first grade.
He could only speak about 50 English words and he resisted his teacher's requests to speak English.
His teacher ultimiatley asked his parents to quit speaking Spanish at home and they agreed.
Rodriquez says "that in an instant his parents agreed to give up the language (the sounds) that had revealed and accentuated his family's closeness."
This affected him profoundly. He says that as soon as English became the language of the house the special feeling of closeness in his home diminshed.
His Spanish speaking home was lively, noisy, playful, warm, and emotionally charged. His English speaking home became quiet and reserved.
Rodriquez says he became a spectator in his own home as noise gave way to silence and connection to distance. Welcome to ELL ... "We have room for but one language in this country and that is the English language, for we intend to see that the crucible turns our people out as Americans, of American nationality, and not as dwellers in a polygot boarding house."
President Theodore Roosevelt (1926) We want to embrace all people's languages and cultures.
We want to create successful citizens, regardless of their ability to read, write, and speak English.
We want ALL people to be educated. In both instances,
children learn English.