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IB HL History: Arab-Israeli Conflict 1900-1949
Transcript of IB HL History: Arab-Israeli Conflict 1900-1949
− 19th century: Ottoman Empire controls Palestine, small Jewish community; Theodor
Herzl develops plans for Zionist homeland
− 1897: Zionist movement founded in Europe 1929: The 1929 Palestine riots erupt due to a dispute between Muslims and Jews over access to the Western Wall. 133 Jews killed and 339 wounded (mostly by Arabs); 116 Arabs killed and 232 wounded (mostly by British-commanded police and soldiers). 1930: The Black Hand Islamist group led by Shaykh Izz ad-Din al-Qassam begins a campaign against Jewish civilians and the British in Palestine. 1930: (October 20) In reaction to the disturbances of 1929, the Passfield White Paper and the Hope Simpson Royal Commission recommend limiting Jewish immigration. 1936: (May 7) The Arab leadership, led by Amin al-Husayni, declares a general strike which rapidly deteriorates into a violent rebellion, known as the Arab Revolt that would last for three years. Roughly 5000 Arabs are slaughtered and massacred, and only a mere 400 Jews are killed within the scope of the conflict. 1937: (July) The Peel Commission proposes a partition plan, rejected by the Arab leadership as it included a Jewish state. The Jewish opinion was divided as Jewish immigration was limited to only 12,000, and the Twentieth Zionist Congress ultimately rejected the proposal as well. 1939: (May 17) The White Paper of 1939 calls for the creation of a unified Palestinian state. Even though the White Paper states its commitment to the Balfour Declaration, it imposed very substantial limits to both Jewish immigration (restricting it to only 75,000 over the next 5 years), and Jewish ability to purchase land. 1939: (September 1) The Second World War erupts. The Haganah begins the smuggling of Jews from Europe to Palestine to provide refuge from the Holocaust. Arab leaders are split: while some assist the Allies, others like Iraqi Rashid Ali and the Palestinian Amin al-Husayni assist the Axis. Many of the Middle Eastern Jewish communities are hit by pro-Axis Arab regimes, and the early stage of Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim lands begins. Most Jewish and Arab Palestinian militant groups attain the policy of cease fire with each other and the British 1947: (November): The UN GA recommended the partition of British-mandate Palestine into two separate states. Fighting breaks out soon, as all the surrounding Arab states rejected the plan. Zionist leaders accepted the proposed partition for tactical and strategic reasons while Palestinians considered the proposal unrepresentative of the demographic distribution. 1948: (May): Zionist leaders proclaimed the state of Israel. Fighting breaks out between the newly declared state of Israel and its Arab neighbors as British troops are leaving the country. The war is known by Israelis as the “War of Independence” and as the “The Catastrophe” by Palestinians. Some 700,000 Palestinians are driven from what had been British-mandate Palestine. Israel annexes large areas of land and destroys some 500 Palestinian villages. 1948: Jordan establishes control over the West Bank and Egypt establishes control of the Gaza Strip. Control of Jerusalem is split between Israel in the west and Jordan in the east. On December 11th, the UN General Assembly passes Resolution 194, stating that Palestinian refugees who wish to return to their homes should be permitted to do so and that those who do not wish to return should be compensated by the state of Israel. 1915: Hussein-McMahon Correspondence: This agreement promised an Arab state in the Middle East in return for the revolt against the Turks. This was meant to help the British defeat the Ottoman Empire. The region of Palestine is not explicitly mentioned in the agreement. 1916: Sykes-Picot (British-French) agreement: This agreement divided the Arabian peninsula between the British and French; as a result, Palestine was left an international zone. 1917: Balfour Declaration: The declaration announced the support of the British government regarding “the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people,” while taking the rights of non-Jewish peoples into consideration. 1919: (January 18th) Faisal-Weizmann Agreement between Emir Faisal, the son of the King of Hejaz, Sharif of Mecca Sayyid Hussein bin Ali, and Chaim Weizmann, the first president of Israel. 1920: (February 27th) Over one thousand protesters take part in an Arab nationalist demonstration in Jerusalem carrying banners bearing the slogans “Stop Zionist Immigration” and “Our country For Us”. Arab nationalists sought to resist the Zionist immigration-Aliyah which comes mostly from Eastern Europe. (March 8th) A second large Arab nationalist demonstration takes place in Jerusalem (June 12th) The Aprill riots prompt the establishment of Haganah-a Jewish defense force 1921: (May 1-7) Jaffa riots resulted in the deaths of 47 Jews and 48 Arabs, with 146 Jews and 73 Arabs being wounded. Most Arab casualties resulted from clashes with British forces attempting to restore order. Thousands of Jewish residents of Jaffa fled for Tel Aviv and were temporarily housed in tent camps on the beach. 1922: (June 3rd) The Churchill White Paper clarifies the British position regarding Palestine, in regards to the inhabitants of the Palestinian area. 1922: (July 24th) The League of Nations approves the draft British Mandate for Palestine. British express interest in Zionism, and describe their main intent of developing a Jewish National Home. 1923: (September 29) The British Mandate for the fate of Palestine and French Mandate for that of Syria come into operation during 1923.