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Ancient Egypt

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by

Elizabeth McDowell

on 28 September 2015

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Transcript of Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt
Importance of Geography
Egypt on the Nile River


Dependent on annual flooding
left behind silt - very fertile material carried by rivers
Religion
Polytheistic
Closely tied to daily life
Pharaoh seen as a living god
Sun god (Ra or Amon-Re) most important
Old Kingdom
Menes - first Pharaoh of Egypt
United Upper (southern) and Lower (northern) Egypt
Established first dynasty

Period of greatest prosperity for Egypt

When all the pyramids were built
Middle Kingdom
Period of chaos between Old and Middle Kingdom
New dynasty made effort to connect to common people
Expanded territory
Natural Barriers
Egypt mostly protected from invasion by natural barriers
Desert
Seas (Mediterranean and Red)
Cataracts on river (large waterfalls)
3 Periods of Egyptian History
Old Kingdom (Pyramid Age)
Middle Kingdom
New Kingdom
Government
This is when pharaohs become gods
Believed they controlled the Nile
Vizier - Adviser to the pharaoh (think Jafar in Aladdin)
Pyramids were tombs for the Pharaohs were built throughout their lives.
Mummification
Afterlife very important in Egypt
Wealthy would be mummified
Process of preserving the body
Internal organs removed and stored in canopic jars
body packed with drying agent and wrapped in linen
brain discarded - not seen as important!
Many medical advancements made because of this practice
Egyptians learned a great deal about the body
New Kingdom
Middle Kingdom Decline
Invasion by Hyksos
They had iron chariots that allowed them to cross the desert and better weapons
Ultimately assimilated into Egyptian culture
New dynasty overthrows last of the Hyksos
Leaders take a more aggressive ruling style
Egypt becomes most powerful empire in South West Asia
Major Leaders
Hatsheptsu
Tutenkhamen
Ramses II
Hatshepsut
Female pharaoh
Took on masculine characteristics to emphasize control
Tutankhamon
Known as the "boy king"
Only tomb found in tact in the modern age
(King Tut)
Ramses II
One of longest reins in Egyptian history
Tried to expand empire
Gained Palestine but failed against Hittites
Some believe him the Pharaoh mentioned in the Hebrew Exodus
Decline
Egypt weakened after a series of invasions
Persians, Alexander the Great, Romans

Cleopatra VII last pharaoh
Advancements
Area and volume
Solar calendar (365 days)
Mummification = new medical knowledge
Hieroglyphics
Writing
Hieroglyphics = pictographs
picture used to represent meaning
Most records were written on Papyrus
paper made from reeds that grow along the Nile

Rosetta Stone
For centuries, historians couldn't read hieroglyphs
Rosetta stone contains same text in three languages
Hieroglyphics
Demotic
Greek
Because we knew Demotic and Greek, we could use it as a guide to translate hieroglyphs
Full transcript