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Presenting Thessaloniki

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Transcript of Presenting Thessaloniki

of Macedon
The King of Macedon
There is nothing impossible to him who will try.
Alexander the Great
Philip II
Alexander the Great was born in Pella, Macedonia, in 356 B.C. He was the son of the King of Macedonia Philip the Second.
He is considered to be the greatest Greek military commander. He was only 20 years old when his father was murdered and he became the King in his place. Very soon, he proved to be a great leader of the cavalry.
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The founding of Thessaloniki, 315 B.C.
Thessaloniki was founded by the Macedonian General Kassandros. In order to become the King of Macedonia, Kassandros was married to the sister of Alexander the Great, Thessaloniki. Then, he gave his wife's name to a new city by merging 26 smaller existing towns around the gulf of Thermaikos.

By the age of 30, he had created one of the largest empires of the ancient world, stretching from Greece to Egypt and into northwest India.

Alexander owes a lot to his father, who was a very capable commander, as well.
Philip II of Macedon was the father of Alexander the Great. He was the King of Macedon until 336 B.C., when he was murdered by one of his guards.

Philip introduced a new weapon called sarissa, a double-pointed pike over 6 m (18 ft) in length. Sarissa was used in a unique military formation, the phalanx, in order to hold the enemy in place while their heavy cavalry broke through their ranks. Alexander the Great used this formation, as well.
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The Arch of Galerius (Kamara)

Rotonda (Rotunda of Galerius) is a cylindrical structure that was built in 306 AD on the orders of the Roman tetrarch Galerius. First it was used as a temple, maybe in honour of the Greek ancient god Zeus, then it was turned into a Christian Church of Saint George. Later it was converted into a muslim mosque, called the Mosque of Suleyman Hortaji Effendi, and a minaret was added to the structure. It was used as a mosque until 1912, when the city of Thessaloniki was liberated by the Greek army. Rotonda was reconstructed again as a church, without destroying the minaret. The building is now a historical monument and a museum.
Today, The modern Via Egnatia has expanded a lot and still is the basic road that runs through Greece from east to west. It is the Greek part of the European route E90.
Kamara is one of the most famous monuments in Thessaloniki. It was built in 305 AD after the victory of the Roman Emperor Galerius against the Persians. That is why it also called Triumphal Arch.

Underneath the Arch, the Via Egnatia was passing. The Via Egnatia was a royal road constructed by the Romans in the 2nd century BC. It was constructed in order to link a chain of Roman colonies stretching from the Adriatic Sea to the Bosphorus. It covered a total distance of about 1,120 km. Like other major Roman roads, it was about six metres (19.6 ft) wide, paved with large polygonal stone slabs or covered with a hard layer of sand.
Galerius Palace
Very close to the Arch, all the way down to the sea, lies the Palace of Galerius. Unfortunately, very few ruins of it have remained.

This area, known as the 'Navarino', is a very popular place for students. Together with Kamara, Navarino is a meeting spot for those who want to stroll around downtown.
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The byzantine walls

Inside the Acropole there is a fortress called Yedi Kule. It was used by the Ottoman as a prison instead of the White Tower. It was also used as a prison until 1989.
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The White Tower
The White Tower of Thessaloniki is one of the 7 towers that was built around the city to defend it from its enemies.

At the beginning, it was situated in the sea, but later the seafront was extended and since then it is on the ground.

During the Ottoman occupation, it became a prison and many people were murdered there. That is why it was called The Red Tower or The Tower of Blood.

Later, it was named The White Tower, because it was painted white by a Jew in exchange for his freedom.

Today it is a museum. It has 6 floors and it is 34 meters high.

Old photos of the White Tower
'Penfriends to Play with Europe'
4th Primary School of Pylaia
The 'crypt'
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Οδυσσέας 2014
ΟΤΕ tower
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OTE tower is a 76-meter-tall tower located in the Thessaloniki International Exhibition Center in central Thessaloniki, Greece, constructed in 1965.

The first black and white broadcasts on a Greek television network took place from the tower in 1966. The tower was also used in the 1970s to support the antennas of an experimental VHF analogue mobile telephone network. Today it is used by a cellular mobile telephone network.

On the upper floor of the tower, there is a restaurant that rotates slowly, so that the visitors can admire the whole city view form above.
Higher education
Thessaloniki hosts three public universities, one Technological Educational Institute, and a considerable number of academies and colleges. With over 100.000 students is considered a city of youth, flooded with energy and spirit.

Thessaloniki was the European Youth Capital
for 2014.

The Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (often called the Aristotelian University or University of Thessaloniki) is among the oldest educational institutions of Greece. It is the largest university in Greece and in the Balkans. It is named after the famous philosopher Aristotle, the teacher of the Great Alexander. It's logo has the image of Saint Demetrius.

The university was founded in 1926 and nowadays almost 70.000 students attend its 41 faculties.
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The big fire of 1917

Bucephalus was the beloved horse of Alexander. Its name comes from the Greek words Βόδι=Ox and Κεφάλι=Head. This was because it was a huge horse with a very big head.
When Alexander was 13 years old, a horse dealer offered Bucephalus to his father to buy it. But the horse was wild and nobody could tame it. Alexander noticed that the horse was afraid of its own shadow and offered to try to tame it himself. He spoke soothingly to the horse and turned it towards the sun so that it could no longer see its shadow. Everybody admired him, including his father, who told him that his kingdom was too small for Alexander and that he should start looking for a greater one, equal and worthy for his capacity .

From that time and on, Alexander and his horse were never parted, until Bucepalus was killed during a battle in 326 B.C.
The Great Martyr
Saint Demetrius
Saint Demetrius is the patron saint of Thessaloniki.

He belonged to an aristocratic family in Thessaloniki. At the age of 22 years old, he was already a senior officer of the Roman army. He became christian and was imprisoned, because he ignored the emperor's Diocletian order to deny Christianity.

According to tradition, while he was imprisoned, he blessed his good friend Nestor (later Saint Nestor) to win a wrestler, much stronger and bigger than him. The victory of Nestor enraged Galerius who was watching the fight. Nestor was beheaded and Demetrius was lanced to death.
We honor Saint Demetrius on the 26th of October. At the same day of 1912 Thessaloniki was liberated, after almost 500 years ottoman occupation.
The first church of Saint Demetrius was built during the 5th century AD over the area of a former Roman bath, later Roman prison, where Saint Demetrius was imprisoned and killed.

In the 7th century it was burnt down by a fire and rebuilt as a basilica. It was looted many times. The biggest destruction happened in 1430, when Thessaloniki was occupied by the Ottomans and the wall paintings were totally destroyed. It was transformed to a mosque until 1917.
'Penfriends to Play with Europe'
4th Primary School of Pylaia
4th Primary School of Pylaia
'Penfriends to Play with Europe'
Since its founding, Thessaloniki was surrounded by thick stone walls and 7 towers. One of these towers is the famous 'White Tower' at the south end of the city.

At the north end of the walls lies the Acropolis. From there, one can see the whole city. During the ancient times, only the army was located there. Later, during the Ottoman occupation, turkish people lived up there. The reason is that, because of their jobs, they didn't have to live by the sea, nor in the center of the city. In the following years, after Thessaloniki was liberated, the upper city (we call it 'the old city') was given to Greek refugees..

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The port

It was not a coincidence that Thessaloniki was founded near the sea. Actually, its position by Thermaikos Gulf was the reason why Kassandros chose this particular place for his new town.

The re-location of the main port of the Macedonian Empire from the Pella lagoon to Thessaloniki was necessary for the amelioration of services provided to the increasing import and export needs of the Macedonians, who were the dominant force of the then-known world. The port of Thessaloniki was an important naval center throughout the Macedonian Empire historical period.

The port was created on the west side of the city's seafront. It was closer to the fertile, cultivated areas, so it would be easier for the transportation of the goods.

Nowadays, film festivals and music concerts are taking place in the wider port area. Restaurants and cafes located there offer some of the best city view by the sea.
Thessaloniki Port Authority
The White Tour of Thessaloniki
3D representation of the White Tower in the beginning of the 20th century
In August 1917, fire was set up by accident in a poor refugees' home in the upper center of the city while cooking. Nobody payed real attention to this fact and the fire spread to the nearby buildings. Things got worse, when the strong wind 'vardaris' started to blow. Despite the efforts to put it out, the fire was burning for almost 3 days, destroyed 120 acres and left 73000 people homeless.
'Penfriends to Play with Europe'
'Penfriends to Play with Europe'
4th Primary School of Pylaia
4th Primary School of Pylaia
"It's high!", Giannis P., Katerina K.
"Beautiful and impressive!", Maria K., Katerina K., Evelina A.
"It is still standing!", Evelina S.
"It used to be in the sea!", Panagiotis P, Iason, Eleni, Stella, Lenia, Nikoleta St.
"Impressive history of Its different names!", Alexandra, Katerina G.
"The Greeks were living on the east side of the tower, the ottomans in the upper city and the Jews near the harbour", Alexandra
"Filip II named his daughter 'Thessaloniki' after his victory against Thessalia (a district in the center of Greece)
Θεσσαλονίκη = Θεσσαλών + νίκη", Evelina A., Alexandra

"Alexandros said 'I owe my life to my father Philip and my welfare to my teacher Aristetelis.'", Mrs Maria
"Rotonda is the only cylindrical christian church that exits.", Mrs Maria
"The Romans were constructing wide roads throughout their kingdom for the passage of the army
and the transportation of goods.", Mrs Maria
"Amazing view!", Giannis, Lenia
"Beautiful structure! High walls around Acropolis!", Giannis, Nikoleta St., Alexandra, Maria K.
"Still standing up after 2330 years!", Katerina K., Eleni
"At fist, only soldiers lived inside the Acropolis.", Iason, Katerina G.
"Impressive doors ('portares'=big doors) to enter the city through the surrounding walls!", Panagiotis P., Katerina K.
"Some refugees' houses were built against the walls, attached to them from one side!", Mrs Maria
"Apostle Paul, during his visit to Thessaloniki, was invited to stay at the house of a man called Jason near the Acropolis", Mrs Stella
"It is still standing since the 4th century B.C.!", Panagiotis P.
"It was built beside the more fertile area.", Katerina K.
"The seafront, before it was expanded by the Ottomans, was two blocks norther than today!", Katerina
"Wide and beautiful!", Maria, Evelina A.
"Beautiful buildings (the passenger station) and very high derricks!", Giannis
"Beautiful blue water and birds fishing little fish!", Giannis
¨The Monument in memory and honor of the 50.000 Jewish Greeks of Thessaloniki, who met a horrible death
in the Nazi death" camps", Giannis
'Penfriends to Play with Europe'
4th Primary School of Pylaia
"When the church was turned into a mosque, Christians stopped visiting the crypt, but they kept on talking about it to their kids.
After hundreds and hundreds of years, people thought it was just a myth. When part of the floor of the church collapsed during
the big fire of 1917, the crypt was revealed to show that the place really existed.",Mrs Stella
"What an interesting and mysterious history that of the crypt!", Nikoleta St., Alexandra, Lenia, Katerina K.
"The findings near the temple are very interesting!", Lenia
"I was impressed by the many, small rooms and by the amazing stone decoratives that were found in the archeological
area!", Giannis, Evelina A., Evelina S.
"The basilica church of Saint Demetrius is the biggest church in Greece, still standing since the beginning of the 4th century",
Panagiotis P., Maria, Evelina A.Katerina K., Lenia
"There are five wide, long corridors along the church. There are two beautiful mosaics saved near the temple.", Iason, Eleni
"At the early years of Christianity, people had to be crypto-christians in order to protect themselves from persecution. Constantine the Great (Saint Constantine) later announced the freedom to believe freely to whatever god anybody would choose.", Katerina G.
'Penfriends to Play with Europe'
4th Primary School of Pylaia
The area used to be a Roman bath, but because it was close to the administrative center, it was chosen to become a prison.

This is the place where Saint Demetrius was imprisoned and killed. It is written that he was buried there and that myrrh gushes through the well.

Because of it's former use, there are a lot of archeological findings in the crypt.
The Monument in memory and honor of the 50.000 Jewish Greeks of Thessaloniki
"A restaurant that rotates!", Panagiotis P.
"The OTE tower is really tall!", Maria
"The OTE tower must have a beautiful city view!", Stella, Maria, Panagiotis P., Alexandra

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Music, dance, theatre and exhibitions dominate the Dimitria festival, which has been going on since 1966. Dedicated to the patron saint of Thessaloniki, St. Demetrius, the festival showcases the rich local talent.

The Thessaloniki International Trade Fair has been held every year, for the past eighty years, at the Thessaloniki International Exhibition Centre. More than 300,000 visitors attend this important festival every year.

Thessaloniki also hosts the International Film Festival, which is one of the more significant film festivals of the Balkans and South East Europe. Famous film makers like Francis Ford Coppola and noted actors like Catherine Deneuve, Irene Papas, Faye Dunaway and Fatih Akin make it a point to attend this festival.

In 1999, the Documentary Festival was established to showcase documentaries that focus on global cultural and social developments. Many of the films screened here go on to win accolades like the FIPRESCI and Audience awards.

Between February and April, there is the 'International Festival of Photography'which attracts the best talent in photography from all over the world. This is a very popular exhibition attracting hundreds of visitors.
There are 63 stages for performances in Thessaloniki but the National Theatre of Nothern Greece has the leading role. There is also a large number of cinemas, over 50 museums, art galleries that host events of every kind.

'Penfriends to Play with Europe'
4th Primary School of Pylaia
This page has been prepared by Mrs Katerina.
Thessaloniki Concert Hall  is a centre for the performing arts in Thessaloniki, Greece. It opened in 2000 on land donated by the Greek state. The complex has two main buildings: M1, with an auditorium that seats 1400; and M2, in more contemporary style by Japanese architect Arata Isozaki, with a number of smaller performance spaces.
Thessaloniki is famous for its gastronomy. High-end restaurants and historic eateries, trendy dining options as well as out-of-the-way ouzeris, tavernas and all-day restaurants will offer you a lifetime’s worth of foodie fun. Istanbul and Pontos, the Balkans and the Mediterranean, Macedonia and Thrace… all these cultures will make their way onto your plate. Famous for:
Koulouri (snack), bougatsa (pastry sweet), seafood, trigono (triangle) of Panorama (a triangular pastry and cream sweet)
"Many beautiful buildings were burnt because of the fire. Some others survived and are still standing. The city would
have looked much more beautiful if there hadn't been any fire", Mrs Maria
'Penfriends to Play with Europe'
4th Primary School of Pylaia
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