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Stress, Anxiety and Arousal - Psychological Skills Training

Stress, Anxiety and Arousal - Psychological Skills Training
by

Alice Tocknell

on 12 August 2014

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Transcript of Stress, Anxiety and Arousal - Psychological Skills Training

P3: Describe stress and anxiety, their causes, symptoms and effect on sports performance
P4 + M2: Describe and explain three theories of arousal and effect on sports performance
P6: Assess the current psychological skills of a selected sports performer, identifying strengths and areas for improvement.


P7: Plan a six-week psychological skills training programme to enhance performance for a selected sports performer

M4: Explain the design of the six-week psychological skills training programme for a selected sports performers

D3: Justify the design.....
Task 1
Task 2
Task 3
Assignment 3:

Stress, Anxiety and Arousal.

&

Psyhological Skills

P3: Describe stress and anxiety, their causes, symptoms and effect on sports performance
Stress
Anxiety
P4 + M2: Describe and explain three theories of arousal and effect on sports performance
Task 1 -
Stress and Anxiety

Task 3 -
Psychological Skills Training

P6: Assess the current psychological skills of a selected sports performer, identifying strengths and areas for improvement.
PST is....
the acquisition and development of a range of psychological skills that are designed to improve performance over a period of time.
(teaching the athlete why PST is beneficial

(learning the psychological skills)

(providing opportunities to use techniques in competition)
Three phases of PST...
education
acquisition
practice
What is PST?
How does PST work?


1. Conduct baseline assessments

2. Plan the programme

3. Take part in programme

4. Conduct reassessments

5. Review the programme.
PST follows these 5 stages.....
Initial Athlete Assessment
P7: Plan a six-week psychological skills training programme to enhance performance for a selected sports performer

M4: Explain the design of the six-week psychological skills training programme for a selected sports performers

D3: Justify the design.....
Planning a Programme

Athletic coping skills inventory
Questionnaires
- assess levels of different psycholgical factors in sport and the athlete's current psychological skills
Assesses an athletes capability of using a range of psychological skills.

As well as a total score for psychological skills, the results can also be broken down and looked at individually.
Goal Setting & Mental Preparation
Skills assessed are:
Coping
Coachability
Concentration
Confidence & Achievement Motivation
Peaking under pressure
Freedom from worry

Competitive State Anxiety Inventory
(CSAI - 2)
Assesses an athletes anxiety levels within competitive situations


Cognitive anxiety

Somatic anxiety

Self-confidence

Sport Competiton Anxiety Test (SCAT)
Designed to assess levels of competitive trait anxiety levels within competitive situations
SCAT is a personality measure and therefore shouldn't be used without taking an individuals situation into account
Sport Anxiety Scale
(SAS)
SAS measures worry and concentration disruption (cognitive anxiety) and somatic anxiety to give a total trait anxiety score.
Performance profiling
- An assessment tool to be used between a coach and athlete to identify strengths and areas for improvement

Describes process and explains importance of open communication channels
Confidential
1. Coach outlines the Performance Profiling process
2. Athlete identifies the characteristics of an elite athlete for his/her sport/event
What are the fundamental qualities of an elite performer in given event?
3. Athlete rates each in terms of level of importance and assesses him/herself on characteristics
Score out of 10
4. Coach rates athlete in terms of level of importance and assesses them on characteristics
Score out of 10
5. Athlete and Coach analyse the results and agree a way forward
Focusing on highlighted areas and discrepancy
Step - by - Step to PP
Example from Football....
What could we assess for a psychological skills performance profile?
Psychological Skills Performance Profile
Before carrying out PST, you need to complete an initial assessment of the psychological strengths and weaknesses of your athlete.

Why do we do this?

and...

How could we do this?
Motivation
Psychological Skills:
Goal Setting
Outcome Goals
Performance Goals
Process Goals
Performance Profiling
Diary
Anxiety Control
Psychological Skills:
Muscular Relaxation
Mind to Muscle Relaxation
Autogenic techniques
Breathing control
Imagery
Audio Techniques
Mental Rehearsal
Concentration
Pre-performance routines
Confidence Building
Psychological Skills:
Self-talk
Positive thinking
Changing self-image through imagery
Visualisation
Video Analysis
Diary
Stress, Anxiety and Arousal in Sport
Psychological Skills Training
&
What is Stress?
Stress
A stimulus in the form of demands placed upon the individual by the environment.
Q1 + Q2
Eustress
'benefical' stress that helps an athlete to perform
Q3 + Q4
Distress
extreme anxiety related to performance
Q5
Causes of Stress
Internal
External
Occupational
Causes of stress are unique to each athlete. It is common to have a number of athletes in similar situations yet for them to have entirely different responses to those situations
- mental
- environment
Illnesses

Psychological factors - worrying about something

Not having enough sleep

Being overly self-critical, perfectionist
Environment - too noisy

Negative social interaction with other people - somebody being rude to you

Major life event - death in family

Day-to-day hassles - travel, training schedules, Finance
Lack of job satisfaction

Unemployment

In sport....

Disagreement with coach

Selection issues
Q6
The Stress Process
Stage 1: Demand
Stage 2: Perception of demand by athlete
Stage 3: Increased arousal levels
Stage 4: Outcome
e.g. last penalty shoot out
Positive perception
Negative perception
Challenge
Threat
Eustress
Distress
Increased energy and motivation
Increased worry
Increased performance
Reduced Performance
Q8
Q7
Symptoms of Stress
Sympathetic Nervous System
Parasympathetic Nervous System
'Fight or Flight' response - it gives you the energy you need to confront the threat or to run away from it
This helps you to relax after the stress has passed
increased HR
increased breathing rate
increased heat production
increased metabolism
increased muscle tension
increased adrenaline production
makes muscles relax
slows metabolism
decreases body temp.
decreases breathing rate
Top 10 Life Stressors
1. Death of spouse
2. Divorce
3. Marital separation
4. Jail term
5. Death of a close family member
6. Personal injury or illness
7. Marriage
8. Fired at work
9. Marital reconciliation
10. Retirement
Seen as being a negative emotional state usually associated with feelings of apprehension and worry, caused by over arousal due to a person being stressed.
There are two types of anxiety...
Trait Anxiety
State Anxiety
Causes of anxiety are similar to those of stress, however, anxiety is a negative perception of those situations.
What is it?
"a behavioral tendency to feel threatened even in situations that are not threatening, and then respond to this with high levels of state anxiety"
What is it?
“an emotional response to particular situations, characterised by feelings of nervousness and apprehension”
Example
At the start of a show jumping event the rider may have high levels of state anxiety
Once the event begins the levels of state anxiety may decrease
State anxiety levels may increase again when coming up to a particularly high jump, and then state anxiety will be at their highest when approaching the final jump
There are two types of state anxiety...
Cognitive State Anxiety
negative thoughts, nervousness and worry in certain situations
Symptoms include concentration problems, fear and bad decision making
Somatic State Anxiety
Somatic State Anxiety relates to the
perception
or interpretation of physiological changes when you perform.
Symptoms include increased HR, increased respiratory rate, and sweating.

Extreme levels of somatic anxiety can also be complete muscle tension that prevents athlete from moving - "freezing"
Mind
Body
Anxiety in a certain situation
Which symptoms of somatic anxiety can be beneficial for performers?
"I can't do it" "I'm not good enough"
"I'm too tense" "I'm sweating too much"
Effects of anxiety on Performance
Cognitive Anxiety
Performance
Somatic Anxiety
Performance
Confidence
Performance
What might happen in the lead up to a competition?
Natural level of anxiety
Goal Setting
Self-Talk and
Positive Thinking
Motivating the best?
Mental Rehearsal
Dealing with Stress
How does Jonny Wilkinson train for stressful situations?
What are the challenges he sets himself?
When Jonny says "It really gets you going" - is that an example of cognitive anxiety, or somatic anxiety?
Imagery
Pre-performance routines
Breathing control
Six-week PST Programme
1. Conduct baseline assessments

2. Complete Needs Analysis

3. Plan the programme

1. …………………………….. is beneficial stress that helps an athlete to perform.

2. ……………………………… is extreme anxiety related to performance

3. Name 5 causes of stress

4. Within the ‘Stress Process’ does a positive perception (challenge) of a demand lead to increase, or decreased performance?

5. Sympathetic Nervous system is your ‘fight or flight’ response to stress, which nervous system calms you down after the stress has passed?
Recap - Stress
Drive Theory
Task 2 -
Arousal

Inverted U Theory
Catastrophe Theory
“a general physiological and psychological activation varying on a continuum from deep sleep to intense excitement”
(Weinberg and Gould, 1999; p. 72)
Arousal
Performance
low
high
moderate
low
high
moderate
(Hull, 1943)
As arousal increases, performance increases linearly (at the same rate)
However, research says that athletic performance is benefited by arousal up to a certain point, after which the athlete becomes too aroused and their performance can decrease
Arousal
Performance
low
high
moderate
low
high
moderate
Performance increases as arousal increases
Optimal point of arousal for best performance
over arousal = poor performance
Some dispute over the curve - does it give an optimal point, or do some athletes experience optimal arousal for a longer period of time?
Arousal
Performance
low
high
moderate
low
high
moderate
Agrees with Inverted U Theory when
cognitive anxiety is
low
However, when cognitive anxiety is high, and arousal levels increase over the athletes threshold, the player will experience a catastrophic drop in performance levels
Arousal
Performance
low
high
moderate
low
high
moderate
Catastrophe
Key Differences
Key differences between Inverted U Theory and Catastrophe Theory
Catastrophe theory says a drop in performance doesn't does not have to be a steady decline when arousal levels become too high

Catastrophe theory agrees that you will perform at higher level when cognitive anxiety is heightened because your attention and concentration levels increase.

However, when high cognitive anxiety is mixed with high arousal, a dramatic drop in performance will occur
Arousal
low
high
moderate
low
high
moderate
Catastrophe
Performance
Arousal
Performance
low
high
moderate
low
high
moderate
Inverted U Theory
Catastrophe Theory
Optimal Level
Arousal and Performance
Perception of Anxiety and Arousal -
Jones, Swann & Hardy (1990) found that if a coach can get an athlete to view symptoms of anxiety and arousal as excitement, rather than fear, performance will generally be facilitated

Psychological tools that can help are imagery (mental rehearsal), effective goal-setting and the correct type of self-talk (inner voice) as well as how they deal with mistakes. The player themselves can also be made aware of where there best levels of arousal lie and attempt to manipulate them using psyching up technqiues:

•Use arousing imagery of previous good performance
•Use arousing music (calm mind – aroused body)
•Positive Self-talk
•Physical contact (huddle)

or psyching down techniques:

•Breathing exercises (lowers heart rate)
•Stretching (elongates muscles and causes relaxation)
•Biofeedback (taking pulse or blood pressure and consciously trying to reduce)
•Relaxing self-talk

Steve Harmison after epic '05 ashes win
Callum Mcmanaman Red Card
Jim Telfer '97 Lions tour to SA
1st Match Forwards meeting
Wales v New Zealand Haka
Arousal in Sport
Full transcript