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Language Acquisition

Timeline of student primary and secondary language acquisition from birth to 18 years
by

J. Kanani Thaxton

on 16 October 2012

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Transcript of Language Acquisition

Language Acquisition Milestones, Birth to 18 years Language Acquisition Birth to 6 months 15 to 18 years Primary Language
Responds to voices by quieting
Cries for assistance
Recognizes voices
Produces vowel sounds
Begins to imitate some sounds
Babbles

Secondary Language
Has minimal comprehension
Does not verbalize
Uses body language communication
Primary Language
Responds to intonation
Responds to name
Begins to use one or more words
Recognizes common item words

Secondary Language
Has limited comprehension
Uses one or two word responses
Uses key words 6 months to 1 year Primary Language
Communicates using gestures and sounds
Produces a 4- to 6- and then 10- to 20-word vocabulary
Begins putting words together to form simple sentences
Connects words with items

Secondary Language
Depends on context clues
Speaks simple sentences
Limited comprehension 1 year to 18 months Primary Language
Produces more than 5 consonant sounds, like m, w, n, p, and b
Follows simple commands
At 24 months, begins to expand vocabulary to 150-300 words
Uses short incomplete sentences

Secondary Language
Develops good comprehension
Makes grammatical errors but can produce simple sentences 18 months to 2 years Primary Language
Average vocabulary size of high school graduate: 10,000 words
Complexity in written language is greater than in spoken language
Language used to maintain social bonds

Secondary Language
Continues to develop vocabulary, critical thinking, and academic language
Works on summarizing During this stage, L1 and L2 acquisition are greatly language use. Code mixing and code switching in bilingual students are affected by family members and modeled speech. This stage is impacted by the type of parenting involved (nurturing or authoritative), frequency in communication, and type of communication used. Language acquisition from 1 year to 18 months, again, is influenced by speech and language modeled by family members. The child depends heavily on context clues. The verbal environment influences language learning. From ages one to three, children from highly verbal "professional" families heard nearly three times as many words per week as children from low verbal "welfare" families. Longitudinal data show that aspects of this early parental language predict language scores at age nine (Hart & Risley, 1995). Primary Language
Begins formulating subject-verb-object sentences
Uses negative forms of words as well as pronouns and prepositions
Can follow simple instructions
Can retell stories and talk about feelings

Secondary Language
Can communicate thoughts more completely
Vocabulary expands up to 2,000 words
Still depends on context 2 to 5 years The use of sensory-motor instruction, academic language, and everyday language can help support L2 acquisition. Ethnic identity and language socialization also affect language acquisition and content. Primary Language
Can correctly produce most consonants and vowels
Uses all parts of speech to some degree
Has well formed sentences of complex nature

Secondary Language
Develops skills in cognitive/academic language
Vocabulary expands beyond 2,000 receptive/active words
Maintains two=way conversations 5 to 7 years At the early school ages of 5 to 7, children become influenced by school, community, and peer members in speech and language. Communication with groups, organized academic instruction, and the introduction of organized play impact language acquisition. Primary Language
Talks a lot
Verbalizes ideas readily
Correctly uses combinations of consonants str, sl, and dr

Secondary Language
Learning through songs and poetry helps capitalize on vocabulary and language learning
Observation plays a large role in speech growth
Prepared to study reading, writing, speaking, and listening 7 to 10 years 7-10 year old students are expressive, spontaneous, and egocentric. Children during this stage are only beginning to develop the ability to see the world from the perspective of others. Explicit direction and instruction affect social communication (SwimBAAC, 2006). Primary Language
Uses connecting words
Gives their opinion
Gives definitions

Secondary Language
Uses native and second language at home and socially
Rate of acquisition dependent on increased communication with native language speakers 10 to 12 years Differences in social interests and cultural awareness begin to affect language output and learning. Females, in general, mature faster than males at this age, which is a plausible explanation for their better performance in language acquisition (Slavoff & Johnson, 1995). Primary Language
Begins to reason
Analyzes points of views and discusses alternative ideas
Uses language to maintain self, direct, report, imagine, predict, and project

Secondary Language
Pronunciation becomes proficient
Rapid learning pattern at this stage
12 to 15 years Rapid physical changes develop at this stage and heavily influence communication and social interaction. Self-image and opinions of others are taught through family members and consulted by peers and can also affect language acquisition and usage both negatively and positively. References
Brandone, A.C., Salking, S.J., Golinkoff, R.M. (n.d.) Language Development. Retrieved from http://udel.edu/~roberta/pdfs/Bear%20chaptBrandone.pdf

Portland Public Schools. (n.d.) ESL/Bilingual Resource Guide for Mainstream Teachers. Retrieved from http://www.pps.k12.or.us/curriculum/PDFs/ESL_Modifications.pdf

Hart, B. & Risley, T. R. (1995). Meaningful differences in the everyday experience of young American children. Baltimore, MD: P. H. Brookes.

Lilienthal, N. (2008). Typical Speech and Language Development. Retrieved from http://www.speechpathologyguru.com/typical-speech-and-language-development-a11/

Slavoff, G.R. & Johnson, J.S. (1995). Rate of Learning a Second Language. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 17:1-16. Retrieved from http://www.eral.ucsb.edu/master_list/index.php?review=96

Snow, C.E. & Hoefnagel-Hohle, M. (1978). The Critical Period for Language Acquisition: Evidence from Second Language Learning. Child Development. Retrieved from http://www.kennethreeds.com/uploads/2/3/3/0/2330615/article.pdf

SwimBAAC (2006). Sociological and Psychological Development of Your Child. Retrieved from http://www.swimbaac.com/mdbaac/UserFiles/File/social_and_psychological_dev.pdf

YMCA (n.d.). Facilitating the Healthy Development of Children. Retrieved from
http://www.ymcagta.org/en/files/PDF/DiscoveryBookAges12-15.pdf At this stage, students are concerned about their image, they desire respect, and want adult-like leadership roles. They renegotiate relationships and are apt to reject goals set by others. This affects social language and can lend to academic language acquisition in frequent and analytical communication.
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