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Capacity Analysis of Airport Passenger Terminal

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Irfan Pratama

on 16 April 2014

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Transcript of Capacity Analysis of Airport Passenger Terminal

Capacity Analysis of
Airport Passenger Terminal

Case Study: Terminal 2 Soekarno-Hatta
International Airport

by:
Irfan
Nurkamal Pratama
09/289152/TK/36019
Civil and Environmental Engineering Department
Faculty of Engineering
Universitas Gadjah Mada

April 2014
Supervisor:
Ir. H. Wardhani Sartono, M.Sc.

INTRODUCTION
LITERATURE REVIEW
BASIC THEORY
METHODOLOGY
DATA PRESENTATION & PROCESSING
ANALYSIS & DISCUSSION
CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATION
BACKGROUND
ACI (2014):
PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION
1. Passenger traffic at peak hour?
2. Is Terminal 2 OK?
3. Required overall area?
4. Are existing facilities OK?
5. Ideal size & quantity of facilities?
6. Revitalization plan, how?
OBJECTIVE
1. Identify peak hour passengers
2. Analyze required overall Terminal 2 area
3. Calculate required terminal facilities
4. Predict passenger traffic
5. Predict future requirement of
Terminal 2 area &
its facilities
BENEFIT
1. Improve knowledge of airport terminal planning & evaluation
2. comprehend detailes of terminal requirement
3. compare various methods
4. obtain big picture of future Terminal 2 condition
5. as a reference for Terminal 2 revitalization
LIMITATION
1. Location: SHIA
2. Primary data : direct obervation of Terminal 2
3. Secondary data : PT. AP II
4. Analyses & evaluation were conducted for Terminal 2
5. Methods:
Overall Terminal Area: Ashford, Horonjeff, JICA
Facilities : FAA & IATA

6. Forecast: 10 years afterward, until 2023
AIRPORT PASSENGER TERMINAL
Definition

Function

Types
TERMINAL LAYOUT
Horizontal Distribution
Vertical Distribution
TERMINAL SYSTEM
Components:

1. Acces Interface

2. Processing component

3. Flight interface
MAIN FACILITIES
1. for
Passengers
curbside,
lobby area,
check-in,
departure lounge,
security check,
arrival hall, baggage claim area
supporting facilities
2. for airport operator
3. for airlines

4. for goverment
agencies

5. for elderly people
& the disabled

PASSENGER
Passenger as terminal user:
terminal design emphasizes passenger needs and accomodation
Passenger Types:
Originating/Departing
Terminating/Arriving
Transfer & Transit
Passenger & baggage flow
PREVIOUS RESEARCHES
Defiani, A., 2011
The Capacity and Circulation of Passenger Terminal Building in Regional Airport (Case Study: Minangkabau & Adisutjipto Int. Airport)

Sofiati, N.F., 2013
Analysis of Passenger Terminal Capacity in Adi Soemarmo International Airport

Lutfi, M.I., 2013
Evaluasi Kapasitas Terminal 3 Penumpang Bandara Internasional Soekarno-Hatta
CAPACITY
A. DEFINITION

B. AIRPORT CAPACITY

C. AIRPORT TERMINAL CAPACITY


Calculation of
Terminal area requirement

CAPACITY
ASSESSMENT

PEAK HOUR INSTRUMENTS
peak period planning terms taken to measure and assess the capacity


1. BHR : Busy Hour Rate - IATA
peak hour
of
2nd busiest day
of the
average week
of the
peak month
2. TPHP: Typical Peak-Hour Passenger - FAA
*peak hour
figure well above the average demand
*considers periods of high airport usage (Whitford, 2003)
TPHP = 0.004 ENP
0.9
3. EQA - Equivalent Aircraft - FAA
number and types of aircraft that will use the airport
in the peak hour,
Bachelor Thesis Seminar
VS
OVERCAPACITY PROBLEM
TERMINAL 3 ULTIMATE

TERMINAL 1 & TERMINAL 2 --> REVITALIZATION

HOW ?
Solutions:
4. JICA's peak hour passengers - JICA

Location & Time
Time : November 2013 - March 2014
Object
Terminal 2
Soekarno-Hatta International Airport,
2D, 2E, 2F
Data
Primary
: direct observation result
Secondary:
a. Terminal 2 profile
b. Overall layout of Terminal 2
c. Layout & existing space of domestic terminal
d. Layout & existing space of international terminal
e. Comprehensive passenger movement data (2013)
f. Latest passenger movement data (2009-2013)
g. Latest aircraft movement data (2013)

Flowchart
Location:
Soekarno-Hatta International Airport , Tangerang, Banten
2008
2013
32 million
59.7 million
Passenger in SHIA
OVERALL TERMINAL AREA REQUIREMENT
Ashford
Ashford et al., 2011 ;and Ashford & Wright, 1992
Horonjeff
Horonjeff et al., 2010
JICA, 1992
1. Determine annual number of passengers, A
2. Compute peak day concentration rate, b
3. Calculate peak day number of passengers (C),
C = A x b
4. Define peak-hour concentration rate, d
5. Calculate peak hour number of passengers, E
E = C x d
6. Define space requirement per peak hour passenger, f
7. Calculate required terminal building, G

G = E x f
TERMINAL FACILITIES REQUIREMENT
&
Airport Terminal Reference Manual
(ATRM)
1989
Planning and Design Guidelines for Airport Terminal Facilities AC No: 150/5360-13
1988
FORECAST
Definition:
Attempt to replicate future situation based on historical data, developing pattern and scenarios of future demand for air travel (Horonjeff et al., 2010)
Benefit:
To define the facilitie that will be required, the scale of such facilities and the time at which they will be required (ICAO, 1987)
To design facilities, forecasts of hourly passenger flows are required (Horonjeff, et al., 2010)
Available Forecast Method:
informed judgement, ratios of national forecasts, trend extrapolation, econometric models, the travel decisions, modal shares, discrete choice models, comparison with other aiports, cohort analyses, etc.
Method Selection?
available data
time & resources
purpose

depend on:
ICAO, 1987
available data
budget of study

(Kazda & Caves, 2007)
ICAO Forecast Method
a. Regression & Trend Analyses
b. Econometric
c. Market survey
2D
2E
2F
2D & 2E
international
2F
domestic
FACILITIES DATA
AREA DISTRIBUTION
PROCESSING TIME
Passenger Movement
Domestic
International
Passenger Distribution
Total
Aircraft
Movement
Peak Hour A/C
A/C Type & Numbers
Narrow body vs Wide body
Monthly & Daily Peak hour
ANALYSIS OVERVIEW
peak hour instruments
Existing Overall Terminal Area:
a. Ashford
b. Horonjeff
c. JICA

Future required overall terminal area:
a. Ashford
b.Horonjeff

Existing
Terminal
Facilities:
a. FAA
b. IATA


Future required
facilities

IATA

Peak Hour Instruments
BHR
TPHP
EQA
JICA
Domestic
International
Originating
Departing
Transit
Transfer
Terminating
1670 pax
1982 pax
312 pax
0 pax
1963 pax
2013
Originating
Departing
Transit
Transfer
Terminating
2164 pax
2173 pax
9 pax
0 pax
2595 pax
Domestic
International
2013
ENP
Graph
ENP
Annual
Flow
Domestic TPHP:
5005 pax
International TPHP:
5014 pax
Domestic
International
2013
42.1
38.9
Domestic
International
2013
4871 pax/hour
5075 pax/hour
3945 pax
4768 pax
Required Overall Terminal Area
Ashford
Horonjeff
JICA
domestic
international
RESULT
Comparison
Facilities Requirements
FAA
domestic
international
IATA
Passenger Forecast
Future Terminal Area Requirement
domestic
international
total
Future Terminal Facilities
Requirement
Conclusion
Recommendation
1. Peak hour passengers
2. In evaluating overall terminal area, according to
a. Ashford & Horonjeff :Overcapacity happens in both international & domestic terminal
b. JICA: Overcapacity only happens in domestic terminal area

3. In evaluating terminal facilities according to FAA:
In domestic terminal : 6 out of 7 facilities has experienced overcapacity
In international terminal : mostly sufficient in space
Worst overpacacity : toilet & arrival hall area

4. In evaluating terminal facilities according to IATA:
in 2013,
domestic terminal: 61.5% of calculated facilities have experienced overcapacity
internatinoal terminal : 38.9% of calculated facilities are in overcapacity
5. Forecast result shows that in 2023, number of passengers in Terminal 2
will reach 35.96 million (1.6 times higher than existing)
6. Required Terminal 2 area in 2023, according to:
Ashford: 369,876 metre square (2.3 times larger than existing)
Horonjeff : 445,355 metre square (2.7 times larger than existing)
7. More facilities will experience overcapacity in suceeding years
1. Revitalization in Terminal 2 has to be done immediately to overcome overcapacity problem
2. If the revitalization is going to be done gradually,
expansion priority list in this bachelor thesis could be considered
3. Layout change of Terminal 2 is suggested, though may need further research
4 Grand design factor should be considered
in conducting future analysis/evaluation
5. Simulations in each passenger facility is
recommended
6. If possible, more sophisticated method
of forecast should be applied
Presentation
Outline

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