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Copy of Renaissance and Reformation

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Jacob Watson

on 29 September 2014

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Transcript of Copy of Renaissance and Reformation

Renaissance
an era of renewed interest and remarkable developments
in art, literature, science and learning
Causes of the
Renaissance
Increased trade with Asia and other regions (result of Crusades)
Growth of large, wealthy city-states in Italy
Renewed interest in the classical learning of ancient Greece/Rome
Rise of rich and powerful merchants, who became
patrons
of art
Increased desire for scientific and technical knowledge
Desire to beautify cities
"Re-birth"
During the Middle Ages education centered around religion
After the Middle Age education became secular: worldly, rather than spiritual focus
Humanism:
subjects such as rhetoric, grammar, poetry, history Latin and Greek. Humanists emphasized individual achievement (contrasted Church teachings)
Science versus the Church
Humanist discovered a wealth of scientific information challenging the churches teachings of the world
Example:
the church taught the Earth was the center of the universe
-Nicholas Corpernicus "Heliocentric
Theory": the sun is the center of the
universe
- Galileo Galilei will support this
theory.
The Italian Renaissance
Renaissance Art
Middle Ages Art: symbolic representations of relgious themes
Renaissance Art: things observed by nature
Important People
Baldassare Castiglione
Wrote the book
The Courtier
which said that a Renaissance gentleman/woman should:
Speak of serious subjects, as well as amusing ones
Have a knowledge of Latin and Greek
Be able to write prose as well as poetry
Niccolo Machiavelli
Wrote
The Prince
:
Men are “ungrateful, fickle, liars, and deceivers”
A ruler must do whatever is necessary to maintain power
“the end justifies the means”
Leonardo da Vinci
Renaissance Writers
Renaissance Artist
Painted The Last Supper and the Mona Lisa
He was also a writer, inventor, architect, engineer, mathematician, musician, philosopher…
Michelangelo Buonarroti
The David sculpture
Painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel
Raphael
Painted The School of Athens
Donato Bramante
Sculpted St. Peters Basilica
The Northern Renaissance
Trading and the Renaissance
Hanseatic League: a merchant organization that controlled trade
This group of merchants not only traded goods but ideas of the Italian Renaissance
Italian artist fled north bringing their humanist ideas as well
Successes of the Northern Reniassance
Johannes Gutenburg
1455: developed a printing press with moveable type
Made producing books and other print materials much faster and cheaper
Desuderius Erasmus
mixed Christian and humanist ideas in his philosphies and writings
Was condemned by the Church for his works
William Shakespeare
English playwriter and poet
Focused on realistic characters and their flaws not religious morality
Christine de Pisan
A female writer who focused on the role of wormen in society
The City of Women
Compare and Contrast
The Italian Renaissance
The Northern Renaissance
tried to capture beauty of Greek and Roman gods
used realism
used perspective
mythological scenes
more realistic
showed people as they were
love of details
used oils
showed scenes of everyday life
Protestant
Reformation

in the 1500s a religious movement that split the Catholic Church in Europe and led to the establishiment of several churches
Dissatification with the Church
financial corruption
abuse of power
immorality
heavy taxation to fund Renaissance artist (ex. St. Peters Basillica)
indulgences: pardons issued by the pope that people could buy to reduce their souls time in puragatory
Key Reformers
Wyclifte & Hus:
1st to speak out against the church
they are condemned however start the first ideas of dissatisfication
Martin Luther: 1483-1546
From Germany
He thought that selling indulgences was sinful
Criticized the power of the pope
God's grace cannot be won by works but by faith alone
Jesus is the only head of the Christian Church, not the Pope
individuals should be their own interpreters of scripture
Practices should come only from Bible
His Beliefs
His Contributions
Ninety five Theses: his beliefs were composed into 95 parts and posted on the church doors in communities
Excommunicated by Pope Leo X
Edict of Worms: a decree declaring Luther to be an outlaw
1530 Lutheranism was formally recognized as a religion
John Calvin: 1509-1564
From France
Supported reforms of Martin Luther
Predestination: God knows who will be saved, even before people are born, and therefore guides the lives of those destined for salvation
NOTHING HUMANS CAN DO, EITHER GOOD OR BAD WILL CHANGE THEIR PREDESTINED END.
His Beliefs
His Contributions
Geneva Switzerland became a theocracy under Calvin’s leadership
Enacted strict laws to regulate people’s behavior
Calvinists felt they were making the world fit for the “elect” who had been chosen for salvation
Protestantism Spreads to England
In 1509, Henry VIII became the King of England
He was only 17!!!!
Because he was a devout Catholic, he was nicknamed “Defender of the Faith”
Henry VIII married Catherine of Aragon
They had one child, a girl named Mary
Henry wanted a boy so he would have an heir
Henry did not think Catherine would produce a male heir
he wanted to have his marriage
annulled

(declared invalid)
so he could marry again.
The Pope would not agree to the annulment.
Meanwhile Henry was falling in love with another lady…
England declared they are no longer under the authority of the Pope!
The Church of England
Henry VIII became head of the Church of England:
Closed Catholic monasteries and convents; distributed much of the land to nobles
This helped build more public support for the split from the Church
Marriage #2
In 1533 Henry VIII secretly married Anne Boleyn
They had one child, a girl named Elizabeth
Marriage #3
Henry VIII married Jane Seymour
They had one child, a BOY named Edward
Marriage #4-6
Henry VIII had 3 more wives after Jane, but did not produce any more children.
Parliament passed
Act of Supremacy:

Subjects had to take an oath declaring Henry VIII to be “Supreme Head of the Church of England”
This completed the break with Rome

Henrys Heirs
Edward IV
Took throne in 1547 at age 9
Protestantism increased (under guidance of his guardians)
Died before 16th birthday

Mary
Returned England to the authority of the Pope
Hundreds burned at stake for Protestant beliefs…(earned her the nickname “Bloody Mary”)
Died – Protestants didn’t care

Elizabeth
1559 - New Supremacy Act: Split England from Rome again
Threatened by Catholics throughout her reign
Persecuted anyone who dared to worship as a Catholic
Firmly established Church of England

The Medici Family
Ruled the Italian city-state of Florence throughout the Renaissance.
Served as major influences on the growth of the Italian Renaissance through their
patronage
of the arts and humanism.
Giovanni de Medici started the Medici Bank bringing the family to power in Florence.
Giovanni's son, Cosimo de Medici, became the leader of Florence in 1424.
The family would rule for the next 200 years until 1737.
The Medici are most famous for their patronage of the arts.
The Medici supported artists such as Michelangelo, Raphael, Donatello, and Leonardo Da Vinci.
They also supported Galileo Galilei in his scientific efforts.
The Medici Bank made the family one of the richest in Europe.
At its peak the Medici Bank was the largest in Europe.
Interesting Medici Facts
The Medici Family produced four popes of the Catholic Church.
Ferdinando de Medici was a patron of music and helped to fund the invention of the piano.
Full transcript