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Mount Pinatubo 1991 Eruption

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Katy Combs

on 8 December 2012

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Transcript of Mount Pinatubo 1991 Eruption

Mount Pinatubo 1991 Plate Tectonics References http://science.nationalgeographic.com/science/earth/the-dynamic-earth/plate-tectonics-article/
http://www.coolgeography.co.uk/GCSE/AQA/Restless%20Earth/Volcanoes/Mount%20Pinatubo.htm
http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/1997/fs113-97/
http://visibleearth.nasa.gov/view.php?id=56217
http://www.coolgeography.co.uk/GCSE/Year11/Managing%20Hazards/Volcanoes/mount_pinatubo.htm
http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0703-083&volpage=erupt There are many plates in the world, the plates all make up the Earth's outer shell called the LITHOSPHERE. There are three different types of boundaries that the plates are categorized into,
Convergent Boundaries
Divergent Boundaries
Transform Boundaries
These plates can sometimes collide to make mountains, faults, and even cause earthquakes. Also plates can make VOLCANOES form! The IMPACT The volcanic eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991 was the second largest volcanic eruption in this century. The impact of this eruption still, 21 years later, effects the Philippines, but not only did it effect the people in the Philippines it effected the globe as an entirety. Pinatubo injected about 15 million tons of sulfur dioxide into the stratosphere, causing the water particles morph into Sulfuric acid drops of rain. The strong winds of the stratosphere caused the acid clouds to spread about the globe, distributing the acid filled water around the world This image represents the aerosol optical depth the red areas are the higher areas and the blue represent the lower areas. The volcanic plume spreads gradually across the entire globe. (Acquired by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) flying aboard NASA's Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS).) Social Impacts 58,000 people had to be evacuated with in a 30km radius of Mount Pinatubo.
1.2 million people lost their homes around Mount Pinatubo and had to migrate.
300 killed by collapsing roofs and 100 by lahars. Economic Impacts Houses and bridges destroyed, needing to be replaced, and Manila airport had to be closed.
Farmland destroyed by falling ash and pumice, ruined for a number of years, the 1991 harvest was destroyed.
650,000 people lost their jobs Environmental Impacts Volcanic ash is blown in all directions over hundreds of kilometers, completely covering fields and buildings.
Global cooling caused by ash in the atmosphere of 0.5°C (32.9°F) Technical Information VEI of 6
Tephra Volume: 1.1±o.5x10^10m^3
Area of Activity: Lower north flank and summit Plate Boundaries Mount Pinatubo is on a boundary between the Continental Eurasian and Oceanic Philippine plate. The Oceanic Philippine plate is being pushed under the lighter Continental Eurasian plate. The volcano isn't completely even with the two plates, so when the Oceanic plate is submerged it is melted and forced away as magma. When density works it's way out the magma, which is less dense, hits the top. Under the extreme pressure it shoots out through cracks, crevasses, and the volcano. When the Oceanic plate moves towards the Continental plate there is a shift and causes the Oceanic plate to be submerged deeper below the Earth's crust, creating more magma. Often times this move can be a violent and sudden shift. The Earthquakes About one year before the eruption there was a 7.8 magnitude earthquake in the area of Mount Pinatubo.
In March and April of 1991, the year of the eruption, magma was rising to the surface. This triggered many small earthquakes.
The small earthquakes continued through May and early June, right before the eruption. More Eruptions of Mount Pinatubo 1993 February
1992 July
1991 June News Report! http://www.gmanetwork.com/news/story/256373/news/regions/over-20-years-after-mount-pinatubo-eruption-aeta-victims-still-struggling Mount Pinatubo before any activity began. Mount Pinatubo June 1991 The summit of Mount Pinatubo collapsed and left behind and enormous depression in the mountain. It was about 2.5 kilometers in diameter. After Mount Pinatubo's summit collapsed, a heavy monsoon season filled the huge crater with water and created this magnificent Crater Lake! Crater Lake This is a more visual representation of the plates and their configuration. In this picture it is shown that the Philippines is a "Hot Spot" for volcano activity. This picture shows Mount Pinatubo's location
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