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Alcohol and Other Drugs

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Tina Reyes-Magnanelli

on 19 September 2017

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Transcript of Alcohol and Other Drugs

Alcohol and Other Drugs
Alcohol and Other Drugs
Short-Term Effects of Alcohol
Long-Term Effects of Alcohol
Table of Contents
Effects of Alcohol
Alcohol is a depressant, meaning that it slows down vital functions of the central nervous system—resulting in slurred speech, unsteady movement, disturbed perceptions and an inability to react quickly. Alcohol actually blocks some of the messages trying to get to the brain.

Although classified as a depressant, the amount of alcohol consumed determines the type of effect. In very small amounts, alcohol can help a person feel more relaxed or less anxious. More alcohol causes greater changes in the brain, resulting in intoxication.
The legal drinking age throughout the United States is
. But according to the National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse, almost 80% of high school students have tried alcohol.
Teens who start drinking before age 15 years are
more likely to develop alcohol dependence or abuse later in life than those who begin drinking at or after the legal age of 21.
Depending on how much is taken and the physical condition of the individual, alcohol can cause:

Slurred speech
Upset stomach
Breathing difficulties
Distorted vision and hearing

Impaired judgment
Decreased perception and coordination
Anemia (loss of red blood cells)
Blackouts (memory lapses, where the drinker cannot remember events that occurred while under the influence)
Alcohol affects all organs in the body, especially the liver and the brain. Health effects associated with alcohol intake in large amounts include an increased risk of alcoholism, malnutrition, chronic pancreatitis, alcoholic liver disease, and cancer. In addition, damage to the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system can occur from chronic alcohol abuse.
Effects of
Alcohol on
the Brain
A significant long-term effect of alcohol is that it can harm the brain. Drinking too much alcohol for a long period of time can disrupt neuronal pathways. This effect negatively affects cognitive functioning, behavior, and mood. Neuronal activity is intimately connected with every function of the brain. For example, neurons in the cortex help with mental functions and consciousness, and healthy neuronal activity is required for efficient memory formation.

How Alcohol
the Liver
Fatty liver disease:
This is characterized by excess fat in the cells of the liver, and it’s an earlier stage of liver disease caused by alcohol consumption. Almost all heavy drinkers develop this condition. It can be somewhat reversed with abstinence from alcohol, although it’s more serious in some people than in others.

The liver is responsible for breaking down the alcohol you drink, so it can become extremely damaged from a high volume of alcohol or long-term drinking. Alcohol can cause severe liver damage, including:
Effects of Alcohol on Babies
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), which is
caused by exposure to alcohol in the
womb, is a severe and debilitating
condition. It falls under the category
of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders
and causes a range of physical and
psychological effects.

When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol, it passes through the placenta to the embryo or fetus and can harm development. It’s recommended that women refrain from drinking alcohol while pregnant due to these harmful health effects. FAS can cause abnormal facial features such as: under-sized upper jaw, big inner eyelid folds, tiny, up turned nose, small head, smooth cleft above lip, small eyes and stunted growth.
Effects of Alcohol on Relationships
An addiction or dependence to alcohol can negatively affect an individual’s personal and professional relationships. One sign of problematic drinking is that of persistent interpersonal or social issues worsened or caused by alcohol consumption. Another sign is that of failing to meet responsibilities at home, school, or work.Failing to meet the demands of one’s job might cause animosity with co-workers or supervisors and increase stress.

Effects of Alcohol on Mental Health
Alcohol does not only impact the body. Long-term alcohol abuse can have many severe effects on mental health as well. The intoxicating substance changes brain structure and function over time, and these changes can cause a number of negative consequences on mood and behavior. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), the following mental health disorders commonly co-occur with alcoholism:
Bipolar disorder
Antisocial personality disorder
Moderate Drinking Versus Heavy Drinking
Many of the long-term consequences of alcohol come from drinking it in excess.

For women
, moderate drinking is considered one drink or less each day.
For men,
it’s two drinks or less each day, according to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans.
However, these guidelines might not apply to you depending on the extent to which alcohol affects you individually, whether you are taking medications that interact with alcohol, and other factors.

Heavy drinking entails consistently drinking an amount over the moderate limit per day. If you fall into this category, you’re more likely to experience some of the long-term consequences of alcohol use. Another consideration is that binge drinking, or drinking many drinks in a short amount of time, can also have serious effects on your health.

Alcohol addiction or alcoholism is the inability to control how much a person drinks. Alcoholism is the most serious form of problem drinking, and describes a strong, often uncontrollable, desire to drink. Sufferers of alcoholism will often place drinking above all other obligations, including work and family, and may build up a physical tolerance or experience withdrawal symptoms if they stop.
Alcoholism is sometimes known as alcohol addiction or alcohol dependence. It’s slightly different to ‘harmful drinking’ which is an occasional pattern of drinking which can cause damage your health.
Binge Drinking
Binge drinking is defined as four drinks or more in approximately two hours for a woman and five drinks or more in the same time period for a man. This pattern of drinking typically raises a person’s blood alcohol concentration to .08 or higher. More than 90% of adults who consume alcohol in excess have engaged in at least one episode of binge drinking in the past month.

An individual isn’t necessarily addicted to alcohol if he or she
engages in binge drinking, but this behavior can still have
detrimental results. For example, those who binge drink
are 14 times more likely to drive drunk than those who
don’t engage in binge drinking.
Liver damage.
Violence in the form of exposure to guns, domestic violence, or sexual assault.
Accidental injuries through incidents such as car crashes, drowning, burns, or falling.
Cardiovascular issues.
Brain damage.
Accidental pregnancy.
Sexually transmitted diseases.
Giving birth to a child with a fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.
Sexual dysfunction.
Poor control of diabetes.
Other harmful consequences of binge drinking may include:









A person must be at least 18 to get a medical marijuana card, that is, marijuana as recommended by a doctor in the treatment of a medical condition. Where you need to be 21 to use marijuana both legally and recreationally.
How does marijuana effect the brain?
Marijuana has both short- and long-term effects on the brain.
Short-Term Effects
When a person smokes marijuana, THC quickly passes from the lungs into the bloodstream. The blood carries the chemical to the brain and other organs throughout the body. The body absorbs THC more slowly when the person eats or drinks it. In that case, he or she generally feels the effects after 30 minutes to 1 hour.

THC acts on specific brain cell receptors that ordinarily react to natural THC-like chemicals. These natural chemicals play a role in normal brain development and function.

Long-Term Effects of Marijuana
Marijuana also affects brain development. When people begin using marijuana as teenagers, the drug may reduce thinking, memory, and learning functions and affect how the brain builds connections between the areas necessary for these functions. Marijuana's effects on these abilities may last a long time or even be permanent.
Physical Effects of Marijuana
Breathing problems.
Marijuana smoke irritates the lungs, and people who smoke marijuana frequently can have the same breathing problems as those who smoke tobacco. These problems include daily cough and phlegm, more frequent lung illness, and a higher risk of lung infections. Researchers still don't know whether people who smoke marijuana have a higher risk for lung cancer.
Increased heart rate.
Marijuana raises heart rate for up to 3 hours after smoking. This effect may increase the chance of heart attack. Older people and those with heart problems may be at higher risk.
Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable illness and death in the United States. It causes many different cancers as well as chronic lung diseases such as emphysema and bronchitis, heart disease, pregnancy-related problems, and many other serious health problems.
Tobacco Use
Why is smoking harmful to smokers?
Effects of Smoking (tobacco)
Smoking leads to disease and disability and harms nearly every organ of the body. More than 16 million Americans are living with a disease caused by smoking. For every person who dies because of smoking, at least 30 people live with a serious smoking-related illness. Smoking causes cancer, heart disease, stroke, lung diseases, diabetes, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which includes emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Smoking also increases risk for tuberculosis, certain eye diseases, and problems of the immune system, including rheumatoid arthritis.

The immune system is the body’s way of protecting itself from infection and disease. Smoking compromises the immune system, making smokers more likely to have respiratory infections.

Smoking also causes several autoimmune diseases, including Crohn’s disease and rheumatoid arthritis. It may also play a role in periodic flare-ups of signs and symptoms of autoimmune diseases. Smoking doubles your risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis.

Respiratory Health
Tobacco smoke contains more than 7,000 chemicals. About 70 of them are known to cause cancer. Smoking cigarettes is the number-one risk factor for lung cancer. Smoking causes many types of cancer, including cancers of the throat, mouth, nasal cavity, esophagus, stomach, pancreas, kidney, bladder, and cervix, as well as acute myeloid leukemia. Men with prostate cancer who smoke may be more likely to die from the disease than nonsmokers.

Oral Cavity
Nasal Cavity

Uterine Cervix
Smoking damages your entire cardiovascular system. When nicotine hits your body, it gives your blood sugar a boost. After a short time, you’re left feeling tired and craving more. Nicotine causes blood vessels to tighten, which restricts the flow of blood (peripheral artery disease). Smoking lowers good cholesterol levels and raises blood pressure, which can result in stretching of the arteries and a buildup of bad cholesterol (atherosclerosis). Smoking raises the risk of forming blood clots.

Cardiovascular System
Skin, Hair, and Nails
(Integumentary System)
Cigarettes contain nicotine, a highly addictive substance found naturally in tobacco. It travels quickly to the brain when it is inhaled and can cause a feeling of temporary relaxation and/or stress relief. Nicotine can also elevate your mood and your heart rate.
Some of the more obvious signs of smoking involve the skin. The substances in tobacco smoke actually change the structure of your skin. Smoking causes skin discoloration, wrinkles, and premature aging. Your fingernails and the skin on your fingers may have yellow staining from holding cigarettes. Smokers usually develop yellow or brown stains on their teeth. Hair holds on to the smell of tobacco long after you put your cigarette out. It even clings to nonsmokers.
Smokers are at great risk of developing oral problems. Tobacco use can cause gum inflammation (gingivitis) or infection (periodontitis). These problems can lead to tooth decay, tooth loss, and bad breath.
Smoking also increases risk of cancer of the mouth, throat, larynx, and esophagus. Smokers have higher rates of kidney cancer and pancreatic cancer. Even cigar smokers who don’t inhale are at increased risk of mouth cancer.
Smoking also has an effect on insulin, making it more likely that you’ll develop insulin resistance. That puts you at increased risk of type 2 diabetes. When it comes to diabetes, smokers tend to develop complications at a faster rate than nonsmokers.
Smoking also depresses appetite, so you may not be getting all the nutrients your body needs. Withdrawal from tobacco products can cause nausea.
Digestive System
Restricted blood flow can affect a man’s ability to get an erection. Both men and women who smoke may have difficulty achieving orgasm and are at higher risk of infertility. Women who smoke may experience menopause at an earlier age than nonsmoking women. Smoking increases a woman’s risk of cervical cancer.
Smokers experience more complications of pregnancy, including miscarriage, problems with the placenta, and premature delivery.
Pregnant mothers who are exposed to secondhand smoke are also more likely to have a baby with low birth weight. Babies born to mothers who smoke while pregnant are at greater risk of low birth weight, birth defects, and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Newborns who breathe secondhand smoke suffer more ear infections and asthma attacks.
Sexuality and Reproductive System
Effects of Alcohol
Short-term effects
Long-term effects
Moderate vs heavy drinking
Binge drinking
Effects on brain
Short-term effects
Long-term effects
Physical effects
Tobacco use
Smoking is harmful
Effects of smoking
Dry mouth, nausea, headache, increased appetite and heart rate, as well as reduced muscle strength
for the TAY population
Some states refer to it as Driving While Intoxicated (DWI) and a small group of states called it Operating Under the Influence (OUI). Individuals who are over the legal drinking age of 21 years and who are arrested for driving with a blood alcohol content (BAC) of 0.08% or higher are generally charged with DWI.

If your BAC is between 0.05% and 0.08% but you are obviously impaired, you can be charged under DWI even though you aren’t officially over the limit. The offense is also mistakenly known as “drunk driving” although that term has no official meaning and is a misnomer because you don’t have to be drunk (or driving) in order to be arrested and convicted of a DUI.
DWI, DUI, OWI and BUI: What Do They Mean?
The penalties typically differ for each of the charges, too.

carries punishment of between 3 and 180 days in jail for first-time offenders, a fine of up to $2,000 and suspension of their license for between 90 days and a year. Second- and third-time offenders are likely to get higher sentences than the first time around, including an ignition interlock device on their car. Third-timers can get a sentence of a minimum of 2 years in prison

, because it usually relates to younger, mostly first-time offenders, typically carries a penalty of a fine up to $500 and suspension of the defendant’s driver’s license for up to 60 days. For second and third offenses, however, the penalties increase proportionately.

, if you are unable to downgrade to a DWI, depends on the circumstances and the outcomes of the offense. Guidelines for OWI punishments are not clearly specified, and it’s a fairly new addition to the statute books.

is usually prosecuted along similar lines to DWI and OWI. The punishment depends on the severity of the offense and its consequences. For example, if a fatality has occurred as a result of BUI, the defendant is likely to attract other charges in addition to the basic charge.
Legal Penalties
An ignition interlock is a device which prevents a vehicle from starting if the driver has been drinking. The device works like a breathalyzer, measuring the alcohol in a person’s system. If the amount of alcohol on the driver’s breath exceeds a pre-programmed level, then the interlock temporarily locks the vehicle’s ignition.
People who have overused alcohol may stagger, lose their coordination, and slur their speech. They will probably be confused and disoriented. Depending on the person, intoxication can make someone very friendly and talkative or very aggressive and angry. Reaction times are slowed dramatically — which is why people are told not to drink and drive. People who are intoxicated may think they're moving properly when they're not. They may act totally out of character. But if a person consumes more than the body can handle, they then experience alcohol’s depressant effect.
Effects of Alcohol Cont.
Irregular heartbeat.
Cancer in regions such as the mouth, throat, breast, and liver.
High blood pressure.
Stretching and weakening of heart muscle.
Weakened immune system.
Slurred speech
Trouble walking
Blurred eyesight.
Impaired memory.
Slow reaction times.
Alcoholic hepatitis.
Fatty liver
Alcohol’s intoxicating effects manifest as symptoms that arise during a drinking episode, but other health effects may persist on a more long-term basis when alcohol affects the neurons in your brain. These symptoms include:
Effects of Alcohol on
the Brain
Alcoholic hepatitis:
This condition results in a swollen and damaged liver. It’s possible to reverse the less serious kind with abstinence, but this condition can lead to death if it progresses. According to the American Liver Foundation, as many as 35% of people who drink heavily have this condition.
Cirrhosis of the liver:
This is hard scar tissue on the liver that can lead to death. It’s a more serious form of liver disease than the other two conditions, and the damage can’t be reversed. The American Liver Foundation says that 10% to 20% of people who drink alcohol heavily develop alcoholic cirrhosis.
How Alcohol
the Liver Cont.
FAS can’t be cured, but if it is treated when the child is young, some of the problems can be addressed and minimized. FAS can cause long-term problems for the baby

Below average IQ
Problems comprehending cause and effect
Lack of ability to remember and follow directions
Suffering from a learning disability
Problems absorbing information
Trouble with understanding social cues
Effects of Alcohol on Babies
Failing to complete schoolwork on time or at all can affect relationships with teachers or professors, and it might lead to dropping out or failing.
Someone suffering from an addiction to alcohol might consistently choose alcohol over hobbies or activities with family and friends, potentially damaging important relationships. Some possible consequences of alcohol abuse on family, school, and work relationships include:
Excessive absences from work.
Job-related accidents.
Low productivity.
Getting fired.
Loss of license to perform job.
Loss of friends.
Financial problems or debt.
Loss of child custody.
Effects of Alcohol on Relationships Cont.
The mental illness might precede the alcohol abuse, or it may be caused by a dependence on alcohol that negatively impacts neurochemistry. For instance, a person who suffers from a psychiatric problem might attempt to self-medicate with alcohol. This action has no therapeutic benefit and may only serve to perpetuate the mental illness and lead to addiction. Some mental health issues might be caused by long-term alcohol abuse: Depressive symptoms often occur during intoxication or withdrawal periods.
Effects of Alcohol on Mental Health
Alcohol addiction or alcoholism is the inability to control how much a person drinks. Alcoholism is the most serious form of problem drinking, and describes a strong, often uncontrollable, desire to drink. Sufferers of alcoholism will often place drinking above all other obligations, including work and family, and may build up a physical tolerance or experience withdrawal symptoms if they stop.
Alcoholism is sometimes known as alcohol addiction or alcohol dependence. It’s slightly different to ‘harmful drinking’ which is an occasional pattern of drinking which can cause damage your health.
Moderate Drinking Versus Heavy Drinking Cont.
: This refers to Driving Under the Influence, although it can apply to alcohol, narcotics, prescription or over-the-counter drugs too. It’s used specifically when a licensed driver under the age of 21 is found to have consumed alcohol or used drugs. The reason DWI is not used in these cases is because young drivers aren’t legally permitted to have any BAC, so it doesn’t actually matter whether you are intoxicated or not. If you have alcohol in your system you are considered to be under the influence and can be charged with DUI.
It’s not just motor vehicles that are dangerous during Operation While Intoxicated. Any type of heavy machinery and equipment can be equally hazardous if operated by an impaired person. Types of equipment that typically qualify for OWI include:
Earth-moving machinery
Factory equipment, such as metal presses
However, OWI can also apply to driving while intoxicated, and is a more serious charge than DWI. The operator’s level of intoxication is determined by his BAC at the time of his arrest. In some cases, the accused can attempt to downgrade from OWI to DUI, if certain conditions apply. These include whether the person appears to be repentant and what the BAC level is compared with legal limits.
Marijuana over-activates parts of the brain that contain the highest number of these receptors.
This causes the "high" that people feel. Other effects include:

altered senses (for example, seeing brighter colors)
altered sense of time
changes in mood
impaired body movement
difficulty with thinking and problem-solving
impaired memory
Short-Term Effects Cont.
Long-term marijuana use has been linked to mental illness in some users, such as:
temporary hallucinations—sensations and images that seem real though they are not
temporary paranoia—extreme and unreasonable distrust of others
worsening symptoms in patients with schizophrenia
Long-Term Effects of Marijuana Cont.
Marijuana use has also been linked to other mental health problems, such as depression, anxiety, and suicidal thoughts among teens. However, study findings have been mixed.
Problems with child development during and after pregnancy
. Marijuana use during pregnancy is linked to lower birth weight6 and increased risk of both brain and behavioral problems in babies. If a pregnant woman uses marijuana, the drug may affect certain developing parts of the fetus's brain. Resulting challenges for the child may include problems with attention, memory, and problem-solving.
Physical Effects of Marijuana Cont.
Secondhand smoke exposure contributes to approximately 41,000 deaths among nonsmoking adults and 400 deaths in infants each year. Secondhand smoke causes stroke, lung cancer, and coronary heart disease in adults. Children who are exposed to secondhand smoke are at increased risk for sudden infant death syndrome, acute respiratory infections, middle ear disease, more severe asthma, respiratory symptoms, and slowed lung growth.
Why is smoking harmful to smokers? Cont.
Smoking has recently been linked to type 2 diabetes, also known as adult-onset diabetes. Smokers are 30% to 40% more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than nonsmokers. Additionally, the more cigarettes an individual smokes, the higher the risk for diabetes.
Respiratory Health
Cardiovascular System Cont.
Blood clots and weakened blood vessels in the brain increase a smoker’s risk of stroke. Smokers who have heart bypass surgery are at increased risk of recurrent coronary heart disease. In the long term, smokers are at greater risk of blood cancer (leukemia).

There’s a risk to nonsmokers, too. Breathing secondhand smoke has an immediate effect on the cardiovascular system. Exposure to secondhand smoke increases your risk of stroke, heart attack, and coronary heart disease.
Smoking also has an effect on insulin, making it more likely that you’ll develop insulin resistance. That puts you at increased risk of type 2 diabetes. When it comes to diabetes, smokers tend to develop complications at a faster rate than nonsmokers.
Smoking also depresses appetite, so you may not be getting all the nutrients your body needs. Withdrawal from tobacco products can cause nausea.
Digestive System
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