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PROZAC

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Ashrafi Basilla

on 20 April 2015

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Transcript of PROZAC

What's The Big Deal About Prozac?
Prozac is one of the many prescribed antidepressants; its chemical name goes by Fluoxetine.

This particular antidepressant has been used to treat depression and other emotional disturbances for
years
and still continues to be prescribed today! Over 40 million users have used Prozac, or still continue to purchase it.

Users may purchase this drug in capsule or liquid form. The daily dose of this drug varies depending on how severe the condition is and the form the drug will be consumed in.
PROZAC
Intramolecular Bonding In Prozac
There are several forces within a prozac molecule that allow it to remain attatched until it can be consumed and split within the body. Prozac in particular consists of only non-metals, which makes it a molecular compound. This means that all electrons in the molecule are shared between the valence shells of the atoms. As a result, covalent bonding occurs.
Intermolecular Bonding In Prozac
Prozac contains all three intermolecular forces: london dispersion, dipole-dipole, and hydrogen bonding. Overall, it is a polar-covalent molecule, but the forces that hold the atoms of the molecule together are different. Down below, we will take apart each type of bond in the prozac molecule and describe it's forces.
How Does Prozac Work In The Nervous System?
To understand the effects of prozac on the body, we must first learn about neurotransmition in the brain. The functional unit of the nervous system, or the brain cell, is called a
neuron
. The three main parts of the neuron include the dendrites, nucleus, and the axon, as shown below.
Fluoxetine (Prozac) Chemical And Structural Formula
Basilla A | Alicia SW | Tess CW
C17H18F3NO:
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
N
O
H
H3
H
H
H
H2
H2
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
|
F
|
|
F
F
This is the structural diagram of a single prozac molecule. It contains 17 carbon atoms, 18 hydrogen atoms, 3 fluoride atoms, 1 nitrogen atom, and 1 oxygen atom. As you can see in the diagram, there are some double bonds between the carbon atoms, but mostly they are single bonds.
Societal And Economic Impacts Of Prozac
H
N
H
C
O
C
F
C
C
C
This particular bond within the molecule contains all three intermolecular forces. Firstly, the london dispersion force is present as it is in every molecule. Second, the electronegativity of nitrogen (3.0) is 0.8 greater than the electronegativity of hydrogen (2.2), making the bond polar, therefore creating dipole-dipole forces. The N — H bond is also an example of hydrogen bonding because we can see that a hydrogen atom is bonded directly to a nitrogen atom.
The C—H bonds in this molecule contain london dispersion forces as well as dipole-dipole forces. The electronegativity of carbon (2.6) is 0.4 greater than the electronegativity of hydrogen (2.2). It does not have hydrogen bonding.
Similar to the C—H bond, the C—F bond only has london dispersion and dipole-dipole forces. We can tell the dipole-dipole forces exist because of the difference in electronegativity from the carbon (2.6) and fluorine (4.0), which is 1.4; this makes the bond polar.
In the C—O bond, there are london dispersion and dipole-dipole forces. The bond is polar, with a dipole pointing towards the oxygen. The difference in electronagativity between carbon (2.6) and oxygen (3.4) is 0.8.
The C—C bond contains only london dispersion forces. The electronegativities of the two carbon atoms balance each other out, so there are no permanent dipole and therefore no overall polarity. There is also no hydrogen bonding present.
SOURCES
Harris, Gardiner. (2004)
Prozac Gets New Warning Label.
Retrieved from http://ciitn.missouri.edu/cgi-bin/pub_view_project_ind.cgi?g_num=70&c_id=2004001

Jahn, M. (10 April, 2010).
How Prozac Works.
Retrieved from http://www.brainphysics.com/howprozacworks.php

Harvard University. (9 June, 2009).
What Causes Depression?
Retrieved from http://www.health.harvard.edu/newsweek/what-causes-depression-2.htm

Howell, Caitlin. (N.D.).
What Prozac Means.
Retrieved from http://pages.cs.wisc.edu/~caitlin/papers/Prozac/

Between each neuron, there is a little gap -- a very small space before the axon of a neuron attatches to the dendrites of other neurons. This space is called the
synapse,
and it's where electrochemical communication between brain cells occurs.
Neurotransmitters
are chemicals that are released at the axon of a neuron and transported across the synapse to carry messages from one brain cell to the next. As they are carried along the brain, they are accepted by
receptors.
Similar to a lock and key, receptors are shaped specifically to take in a single neurotransmitter that will fit with its shape. The receptor at the end of the "sending" neuron is known as the
presynaptic receptor.
The receptor at the "receiving" neuron is called the
postsynaptic receptor,
referring to its position in respect to the synapse.

Serotonin
is a very common neurotransmitter that helps regulate sleep, mood, thinking, and appetite. People with clinically diagnosed depression produce less serotonin, which heavily affects the way they feel and think.
As the neurotrasmitter travels from one neuron to another, it may leave some traces in the synapse of each neuron. This extra serotonin should then be sent back to the presynaptic receptor to regain chemical balance. However, the serotonin in people with depression is reabsorbed very quickly by an uptake pump before it can react with the presynaptic receptor.
This is where
Prozac
comes in. It blocks the uptake pumps, inhibiting the reabsorption of serotonin and providing it the time it needs to maintain chemical balance.

The chemical reaction that occurs to allow this process includes the nitrogen from the fluoxetine and hydrochloric acid from the stomach. When fluoxetine is consumed, the nitrogen atom's lone pair takes a proton from the hydrochloric acid, pushing the electrons in the H--Cl bond closer to the side of the chlorine atom due to its greater electronegativity. About ninety percent of the prozac molecule will bind to proteins in the human body, which
is the reason it works so effectively.
Depression often leaves an immense impact on mental, physical, and emotional wellness. It can cause people to feel completely isolated and alone, or angry and upset by everything. In fact, suicide caused by mental disorders such as depression are one of the leading causes of death in North America.

Prozac is an effective drug that helps fight against depression. It has been used by millions and millions of people from all over the world to treat not only cases of depression, but also eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulliamia, as well as obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Financially, cost of production is fairly low with a high statistical success rate, and insurance companies are more likely to invest in this drug than psychotherapy. Many have even claimed that the success of Prozac has brought awareness to mental health and depression.

However, implications of hindrance against the natural mind have been placed upon this drug. In the past, some people spoke out against how Prozac had caused violent behaiour within patients.

Overall, the drug has seemed to have a fairly positive impact on
society today. Although not everything has been
learned about Prozac, it continues to be
researched even today.
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