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Transcript of Dante's Inferno
Le Social Construction
Punishment in the 14th century Vs. 21st Century
Public communtiy service
Separation of church and state
In the 14th century, the church or the village leaders were responsible for the judgement of criminals in accordance with religion
Why Punishment is Constructed
Race, religion, class, group, and order are all made up by society.
It's something unnecessary that we create
it doesn't even have to exist
but it does
Who is the Judge?
Lost in Translation
Does the translation from Tuscan "Italian" change the meaning of Inferno?
Dante invented a complicated rhyme scheme called Terza rima
The pattern was ABA,BCB,CDC,DED
It would be nearly impossible to translate this rhyme scheme into English.
It does have some effect on the artistry and interest of the work but does it effect its meaning?
Lets get existential...
In the 21st century the governments are involved in the laws and judgement decided by politicians. Guilt is decided by a Jury
Male / Female
Rich / Poor
How are the poor perceived?
Strong / Weak
Southern Baptist / Deist
Belief's about objects
Beards are great
You shall all suffer for your sin!!!!!!!!!
RAWW!! I love torching the sinners.
Heat Of The Moment
The Construction of Punishment
-Christianity- the ten commandments
-Confucianism- has the Analects
-Hinduism- has dharma
-Buddhism- 5 rules of right conduct
These are some examples of religion using laws and punishments come from their god.
-First laws publicly displayed.
-Used to have a controlled society.
-If a son strike his father, his hands shall be cut off.
How Control is Kept
With out order there is only chaos!
This image is part of a mosaic located in the Baptistry of Florence, dating to the thirteenth century.
Similar to Dante's account in
, it shows Lucifer devouring Judas, Brutus, and Cassius in each of his three mouths.
It is believed that this very piece is what inspired Dante's description upon his encounter with Dis.
Church had to much power
Many main characters of the church were involved in
The church got its orders directly from god
Not obeying church= direct way to hell, punishments
You could pay off your sins
The descriptive imagery found within Dante's Inferno has contributed to it becoming a memorable piece of literature.
Being a personal account of Hell, with very visual descriptions, many artists and writers have used it overtime as inspiration for their own works.
Sinners paying off their sin
Social Constructions are our ideas, and give insight into the values of the society they belong to.
In the 14th century in France:
Criminals would be put into a deep pit and forgotten
Getting Hand chopped off
Oblier- To Forget
"The 14th Century was a time of turmoil, diminished expectations, loss of confidence in institutions, and feelings of helplessness at forces beyond human control." (University of Wisconsin)
In the 21st century:
Everyone has more rights and freedom, but we also have more rules
Early Medieval and Renaissance art showing the
mainly focused on the poet and his accounts of punishment and damnation.
The material inspired numerous artists to captivate their audiences imagination with grotesque and frightening visuals.
Lucifer and his minions were prominent throughout these works.
The idea for many was to feature the same degree of fear as found in Dante's poem.
Some brought to light the scale of the Divine Comedy, while others...
and Inevitable Judgement
Domenico Di Michelino of Florence, Dante and The Three Kingdoms, 1465
Paul Chenavard, Dante's Inferno, 1800's
Giovanni da Modena, The Inferno (detail),1410, Basilica di San Petronio , Bologna
The Gates Of Hell, Auguste Rodin, 1917
In more recent times, much of the fear surrounding death and Hell have subsided.
Breakthroughs like medicine, physical, and astrological sciences have provided a more definite prospective for people.
Most adaptions of
have since been treated with a more lighthearted, satirical, comical, or abstract perspective.
Dante's Inferno in
American Federal Justice System and Contra Passo?
Too busy looking at a matrix and making deals behind the scenes about the outcome of the trial
Make decisions about the future based on the past
Restricted by laws that keep them from being able to treat each case individually
And The American Justice System
The US Sentencing Commission
Hockenbury, Don H., and Hockenbury Sandra E. Discovering Psychology. W H Freeman & Co, January 2010. Print. December 11, 2013.
N.A. Ancient Civilizations. December 11, 2013.www.ushistory.org. Web. December 11, 2013.
N.A. Prezi. December 11, 2013. www.googleimages.com.Web. December 11, 2013.
Von Sivers, Peter, Desnoyers, Charles A., and George Stow. Patterns of World History. New York: Oxford University Press Inc., 2012. Print.
(Peter Von Sivers.
Patterns of World History
(Don H. Hockenbury,
(Don H. Hockenbury,
-Society is changing from
-Using Positive behavior
to achieve results
-Ex. not spanking children,
Getting rid of death
penalty in some states
-Many societies use negative reinforcement to achieve results
-You see someone get punished you are more likely to not repeat the behavior
-You get caught and punished most people won't repeat the behavior again
-Through religious conviction
-Giving punishment and making it public. Ex. past -public deaths, today-news publicity
-In most religion have an obligation to respect government
(Peter Von Sivers.
Patterns of World History
Chuck Palahniuk, an American novelist and author of
, published a novel titled
Said novel tells the tale of the life after death of a thirteen year old Madison, who finds herself in Hell after overdosing on marijuana while away at boarding school.
Punishment Used in Religion
Aside from being influenced by Judy Bloom's
Are you there God? It's me, Margaret
., as well as the 80's film
, Palahniuk confesses to paying homage to Dante through his book
the newly released
and the third book of the series coming soon.
"Dante is a big influence because this will be a series of three books in which Madison visits hell, purgatory and eventually heaven, so it is very much an homage to Dante."
-Chuck Palanhiuk, Dallas Observer
Is the System Balanced?
Public opinion: penalties should match the severity of the crime and harm the perpetrator in the same way he/she has harmed society.
Dantean Contra Passo
Mohamed meeting Dante and Virgil.
One of the earliest known manuscripts of Inferno (created 1350-1375). Artist and title unknown.
Nattini, Amos. In the Fourth Bolgia of the Eighth Circle of Hell the False Prophets Have Their Heads Twisted so They Can Only See Behind Them, from Canto XX of 'Inferno' From 'The Divine Comedy' by Dante Alighieri, color lithograph. 1923. Translation and Eroticism of the Conflict. February 2012. Web.
The intention is to ensure that punishment fits the crime.
Changing laws takes time.
It's difficult for the system to keep pace with changing public opinion and values.
Until recently, drug possession offenses (even in small amounts) often incurred the same prison time as violent crimes.
The Licata Case---an “addict” in FL who murdered his entire family with an ax. He had no recollection. The police described him as “crazed." 1937
American Prosecutors Research Institute.
State Rape Statutes, 2002
. Web. <http://www.arte-sana.com/articles/rape_statutes.pdf>.
Bakalar, James, and Lester Grinspoon.
Drug Control in a Free Society. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1985.
Google Books. Web.
Chevigny, Paul G. “From Betrayal to Violence: Dante’s Inferno and the Social Construction of Crime.” American Bar Foundation. 2001: 787-815.
. Web. 6 December, 2013.
. Trans. Stanley Lombardo. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc. 2009. Print.
Edwards-Levy, and Sunny Freeman. "Americans Still Can't Decide Whether Edward Snowden Is A 'Traitor' Or A 'Hero,' Poll Finds."
The Huffington Post
. 30 October 2013. <http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/10/30/edward-snowden-poll_n_4175089.html>.
"Five Years after Market Crash, U.S. Economy Seen as ‘No More Secure’: Household Incomes, Jobs Seen as Lagging in Recovery."
Pew Research Center for the People & the Press
. 12 September, 2013. Web. <http://www.people-press.org/2013/09/12/five-years-after-market-crash-u-s-economy-seen-as-no-more-secure/>.
Luttrell, David, Tyler Atkinson and Harvey Rosenblum. "Assessing the Costs and Consequences of the 2007–09 Financial Crisis and Its Aftermath."
. 8.7, 7 September, 2013. Web. <http://www.dallasfed.org/research/eclett/2013/el1307.cfm>.
National Center for Prosecution of Child Abuse. "Statutory Compilation: Physical Child Abuse Penalties."
National District Attorneys Association.
April 2013. Web. <http://www.ndaa.org/pdf/Physical%20Child%20Abuse%20Penalties%20Compilation%202013%20(3).pdf>.
Russo, Thomas A., and Aaron J. Katzel. "The 2008 Financial Crisis and its Aftermath: Confronting the Next Debt Challenge." 25 October2010. Google Books. Web.
White, Sarah. "Not One Top Wall Street Executive Has Been Convicted Of Criminal Charges Related To 2008 Crisis."
The Huffington Post
. 13 September, 2013. Web. <http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/09/13/wall-street-prosecution_n_3919792.html>.
Luna, Erik. "When The Punishment Doesn't Fit The Crime." USA Today Magzine 132.2702 (2003): 18-21. Academic Search Elite. Web. 15 Dec. 2013.
Scardilli, Frank J. "How Just is our Justice System?" ETC: A Review of General Semantics 70.2 (2013): 130-134. Acedemic Search Elite. Web. 15 Dec. 2013.
Public opinion still split on whether he's a hero or a traitor.
Government shouldn't invade our privacy but should still protect us.
Charged with 3 felony counts of espionage and could receive 30 years in prison if he returns to the U.S.
Is this appropriate?
Did his actions harm society?
Global Financial Crisis
A few of the players
Did they harm society?
Almost no laws directly protecting children until the 1970s
Now a Class Y Felony punishable by 10-40 years for injuring a child under age 12 or committing rape in Arkansas
Child Abuse, Domestic Violence, and Rape
No prison time for Zimmerman
Florida's Stand Your Ground Law=
John J. Mack, Morgan Stanley
Brian T. Moynihan, Bank of America
James "Jamie" Dimon, JPMorganChase
Lloyd C. Blankfein, Goldman Sachs
Some companies had to pay fines, but they were small fractions of their revenues.
No Wall Street or bank executives have received criminal convictions since the 2008 crisis.
More than $14 trillion lost due to lowered net incomes, bailouts, lowered output
Much more difficult to get loans today
8.5 million jobs lost between 2008 and 2009
U.S. credit rating down
Continued global effects from long-term unemployment
Still limited trust in U.S. economy at home and abroad
The goal is to base sentencing on extent and
of harm to the public.
Distribution increases harmful substances in the community
Access to money, promoting greed
Likely to perpetuate violence
Usually involves one victim, but that victim is traumatized
May become abusers or violent criminals themselves
Widespread harms to public feelings of safety and security
Logic behind similar sentencing
“Cosí s’osserva in me lo contrapasso.”
“This is how retribution is observed in me.”
Bertran de Born (XXVIII.142)
"Are you there, Satan? It's me, Madison."
What you find in Palahniuk's Hell
"surging oceans of scalding-hot barf"
Chevigny's "just deserts" concept.
Human attempts to create order and to make sense of their world
Construction involves stereotyping="easier" lives
Classifications often incorrect
The Comedy is in many ways an act of rebellion.
Latin was the accepted language of the serious literature and religion. Dante wanted to show that his Tuscan Italian dialect could be equally artistic. Dante's effect on language turned out to be greater then the effect of language on his work.
Dante was something of a literary rock star.
Within 80 years of his death 12 works had been written analyzing the Comedy.
Inferno was a fine example of the Pen being mightier than the sword.
Abrams, Dominic, and Michael A. Hogg. “Metatheory: Lessons from Social Identity Research.”
Personal and Social Psychology Review
. 8.2 (2004): 98-106.
. Web. 2 Dec. 2013.
.Trans.Stanley Lombardo. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company Inc., 2009. Print.
Gergen, Kenneth J.
An Invitation to Social Construction.
2nd ed. London: SAGE Publications Ltd., 2009. Print. 80-107.
Serena Di Froscia
. October 10, 2013. http://difrosciaserena.blogspot.com.Web. December 12, 2013.
River of Hot Saliva
Dante's move away from Latin gave
Italy a living language that was able to congeal into a standardized form far ahead of the rest of Europe.
He couldn't overcome the banishment imposed by the Pope in his lifetime. But he was able to banish the pope toaa literary hell that has endured throughout history.
In the 14th century executions were public and a form of entertainment. The punishments were chosen to be cautionary tales since the punished were made examples of .
Shift since Dante's time:
Possible shift again in the last decade-or-so: fraud's makin' a comeback!
Earth is Earth. Hell is Hell.
"hillocks heaped with every thin crescent of nail ever trimmed."
"Hell, Our Bodies Ourselves: Chuck Palahniuk's Damned."
Interview by Brentney Hamilton. Dallas Observer Blogs. Dallas Observer, 18 Oct. 2011. Web. 12 Dec. 2013. <http://blogs.dallasobserver.com/mixmaster/2011/10/hell_our_bodies_ourselves_chuc.php>.
Palahniuk, Chuck. Damned. New York: Doubleday, 2011.
Futurama is an adult animated tv series set in the 31st century in New New York City. It was developed by the creator of the Simpsons, Matt Groening, for Fox Broadcasting Company.
Hell is Other Robots
Season I. Episode IX.
In Hell is Other Robots, Bender, a main character of the show, becomes obsessed with electricity. So much so, that he joins a the church of Robotology as a means to purify himself.
He ends up reverting back to his old ways and leave the church of Robotology, which condemns him to robot hell, of which the entrance is found in an amusement park ride named Inferno.
Very few remember Boniface the vii or the Black Guelphs but Dante's art has endured.
-The Inferno is a classification of people and the sins committed.
-Each level is a stereotype of sinners
-In the book, Minos wrapped his tail to decide the level of Hell the sinner was on
-Who is really the judge in this text Minos or Dante?
-Dante is the one stereotyped the people in his life and put it into the book
Bender meets the Robot Devil in "actual, factual Robot Hell" where the Robot Devil gives Bender a tour of the different levels of Hell along with introducing him to the ironic punishments of each level.
Federal Penitentiaries are rifled with relatively minor offenders...[who] sit in prison, not because their punishment is morally deserving or achieves some social goal like crime deterrence, but because the Guidelines have shifted punishment authority to prosecutors and converted Federal trial judges into rubber-stamp bureaucrats."
"The Current system attempts to purge sentencing discretion in Federal trial courts--mandating punishment, not guiding it--thus preventing any deviations from the Guidelines' strictures."
The US Sentencing Commission was supposed to limit judicial discretion in order to make the system more fair and equal (which needed to be done) but they went about it the wrong way and created the opposite extreme.
Now, a Judge's job is no longer to do justice but to "play the game according to the rules".
The real prison bars
The "rules" of the game are contained in the sentencing "Guidelines Manual"
"More than 1,000 pages of complex regulations variously described as "Guidelines," "Policy Statements," and "Commentary," and filled with amendments, crossreferences, and examples."
These are dictated by an independant commission that does not answer to any branch of the government yet has control over all of them