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2/9 End of WWI/ Cornell Notes

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Amber Westendorf

on 9 February 2018

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Transcript of 2/9 End of WWI/ Cornell Notes

WWI 1-6-14
End of War Notes
The War at Home 1-12-15
Thursday, January 21, 2015
Vol XCIII, No. 311
WWI Begins
Unit 4 Week 1
Wilson Fights for Peace
Warm Up
Welcome Back!!!!
Study the picture.
1.What are the soldiers doing?
2.Describe the battle scene.
3.Write a few sentences discussing how the battle scene is similar or different to how war is waged today.
Definition: a devotion to the interest and culture of ones nation.

Example: Nationalism lead to competitive rivalries among nations.
Definition: the development of Armed Forces and their use as a tool of diplomacy.

Example: Each nation wanted stronger Armed Forces than those of any potential enemies so they practiced a policy of militarism.
First person in every row get books for each person in your row.

Popcorn read pages 372-380
What do you do when someone insults your friends? Do you defend them? How?
1.What were the four long-term causes of World War I? List and Explain each.
2. What was the immediate cause of WWI?

~Be prepared to answer. I will call names randomly.
The U.S. Declares War
Germany announced it would sink all ships in British waters, hostile or neutral on sight.
Wilson said we would wait for "actual overt acts" before declaring war...
Overt Acts
~Zimmerman Note
~Sinking of 4 unarmed American merchant ships
~Russian monarchy replaced with a representative government
What would it be like to be a soldier in the trenches?

What would it be like in the trenches in different weather conditions?
What protection did the soldiers have from enemy artillery and machine guns?

Unit 4 Week 1 Packet
1. 1-5 World War I Begins
2. 1-5 World War I Begins Graphic Organizer
3. 1-6 WWI
4. 1-7 Causes of WWI/Zimmerman Note
5. 1-8 American Power Tips the Balance Notes + WS
6. Text book pgs. 372-380 #'s 3,4

How would you react if we went to war today? Would you volunteer to serve? Would you refuse? Protest?
Combatants in World War I quickly began to use total war tactics

Governments committed all their nation’s resources and took over industry to win the war

Soldiers were drafted, the media was censored, propaganda was created to support the war

…heavy artillery, tanks, poison gas, flame throwers, submarines

New, industrial weapons were introduced on the battlefield such as machine guns, airplanes, blimps...

These weapons led to unprecedented deaths and casualties

Trench warfare made it difficult for either side to gain an advantage

To protect soldiers from enemy fire, both the Allies and Central Powers built trenches

German u-boats patrolled the Atlantic Ocean attacking Allied cargo ships

2 million soldiers were killed or wounded during the battles of Verdun and Somme

Fighting on the Western Front slowed to a stalemate as neither side could gain an advantage

Due to German violations of free trade, the USA declared war in April 1917

The USA remained neutral in World War I from 1914 to 1917…

After America’s declaration of war in 1917, the U.S. had to mobilize before it could fight in Europe

President Wilson and Congress created 5,000 bureaucratic agencies to manage and win the war

The military needed massive supplies of armaments

The army had only 200,000 soldiers and needed a larger military

After America’s declaration of war in 1917, the U.S. had to mobilize before it could fight in Europe

…President Wilson wanted to keep the U.S. military separate from the other Allied forces

The American Expeditionary Force was led by John Pershing as an independent American military

The USA supported the Allied Powers, but the Americans entered the war for their own reasons…

“Colored Man is No Slacker”

“True Sons of Freedom”

400,000 black soldiers were drafted but served in segregated units

2.8 million Americans were drafted into the military

Congress passed the Selective Service Act to draft men between the ages of 18 and 45 into the army

The WIB encouraged mass-production of war equipment and set production quotas

The War Industries Board (WIB) was created to oversee the production of military supplies

Unit 4 Week 1 Quick Write
What are the 5 reasons for WWI starting? List each and also explain how these contributed to the start of the war. (This is not a definition-it needs some thought.)
2 pts. Strong Topic Sentence
2 pts. listing all 5 causes correctly
4 pts. explaining/expanding each of the arguments
1 pts. for good grammar, spelling, and complex sentences
1 pts. flow of writing.
Image J.
Image B.
Image C.
Image H.
Image F.
1. Hating the enemy
2. War bonds
3. Patriotism
4. Inspiring the home front
5. Shaming people into action

Propaganda Varieties
-Official propaganda ministry
-Influenced all forms of media
-Led to the domination of Hollywood films over the world
Committee on Public Information or CPI
Image I.
Image D.
Image G.
Image E.
Image A.
Getting people riled up
World War I Propaganda
Propaganda Posters
1. Copy down the Chart
2. Briefly describe the picture.
3. Decide what type of propaganda the poster is depicting and write it into the chart.
-The image can be more than one type of propaganda, so you should write both.
Shaming People Into Action

Inspiring The Home Front

Inspiring The Home Front



War Bonds

Hating The Enemy

Shaming People Action

War Bonds

Hating The Enemy

Warm-Up 1-12-15
"Once lead this people into war, and they'll forget there ever was such a thing as tolerance. To fight you must be brutal and ruthless, and the spirit of ruthless brutality will enter into the very fiber of our national life, infecting Congress, the courts, the policeman on the beat, the man in the street. Conformity would be the only virtue, and every man who refused to conform would have to pay the penalty."
~ Express the main idea of the quote in your own words.

Take a moment and respond..

~How was America transformed at home during World War I?
Socialism and the Red Scare
-The commitment to “total war” stimulated American industry and transformed lives on the home front
-The USA reluctantly entered WWI and played only a supportive role in the fighting, but the war changed America
-On November 11, 1918 Germany signed an armistice with the Allies and World War I came to an end
-The arrival of fresh American soldiers and war supplies helped the Allies at a crucial time
“America’s present need is not heroics, but healing; not nostrums, but normalcy”

—President Warren Harding, campaign speech in 1920 after World War I ended

The American Economy
The American Economy

“ Protection of free speech would not protect a man in falsely shouting ‘Fire!’ in a theatre and causing a panic”

—Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes in Schenck v US (1919), a case about government restrictions on free speech during World War I
Civil Liberties During WWI
African-Americans in WWI

-America fought for only 8 months (not 4 years) and had 7% casualties (not 52% like most Allied Powers)
-To combat German u-boats, the USA used a convoy system to deliver soldiers and supplies to Europe
-With the military and economy mobilized for war, the first U.S. troops were sent to Europe in 1918
“I remember when they smashed out store windows at Uniontown that said Kraut on it. Nobody would eat Kraut. I remember even the great Williamson store, he went in and gathered up everything that was made in Germany, and had a big bonfire out in the middle of the street.”

—Lola Gamble Clyde on anti-German Sentiment in Idaho during World War I
Civil Liberties During WWI
Women During WWI
-Take notes from the chart.
-World War I had a huge impact on the United States
-On Nov 9, German Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicated his throne
-By October 1918, Bulgaria, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire surrendered
-Throughout 1918, the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) fought with Allied forces to turn the tide of the war
-U.S. soldiers saw their first action in May 1918 outside Paris, helped resist a German offensive, and participated in a counter-attack into Germany
The Fuel Administration was created to ration coal and oil and to encourage “lightless nights”
The Food Administration was created to ration food and encourage Americans to grow “victory gardens”
-The USSR was based on communism, a single-party dictatorship in which the government controls all factories, railroads, and businesses
-Americans feared a world-wide communist revolution and experienced a Red Scare
-In America, Eugene Debs formed the Socialist Party calling for an end to the war, government control of factories, and an increase in unions; Every strike fueled fears of a Bolshevik-style socialist revolution in America
-In 1917, Vladimir Lenin and his Bolsheviks created the Soviet Union
-America experienced a Red Scare as a result of the war
The gov’t acknowledged the role women played in the war by passing the 19th Amendment (women’s suffrage)

For the first time, women served in the Army in noncombat roles as telephone operators, nurses, typists, drivers
Women worked with the Food Administration by planting “victory gardens,” volunteered in the Red Cross, and sold war bonds
Women did “men’s work” on railroads, coal mines, shipbuilding, munitions to meet war-related demand and to replace soldiers
Women’s roles changed due to World War I
-Before the war, the USA owed $3 billion to foreign nations; At the end of the war, foreign nations owed the U.S. $13 billion
-Americans had money to spend and a desire for consumer goods; This led to a decade of spending in the 1920s called the “Roaring Twenties”
-When WWI ended, the USA was the wealthiest nation in the world
-When World War I ended, Americans were ready to “return to normalcy” and elected Republican President Warren Harding
-War-time production increased hourly wages by 20% in some industries; The average household income nearly doubled from 1916 to 1919
World War I stimulated the American economy
WWI comes to an end

US declaration of war

Outbreak of WWI in Europe

America began preparing for war

-U.S. Gross Domestic Product (GDP), 1914-1920 GDP is an indicator of economic health because it is the value of all goods and services made in the USA
The American Economy
-Anti-German sentiment was high across the nation
-During the war, over 2,000 citizens were prosecuted including newspaper editors, Socialists, anarchists, union leaders, and critics of the draft
-Charles Schenck, a socialist and anti-war critic, was arrested and sued arguing that the laws violated free speech
-In Schenk v US (1919), the Supreme Court ruled that in wartime, speech that presents a “clear and present danger” is not protected
-Congress passed the Espionage and Sedition Acts which made it illegal to interfere with the war or saying anything disloyal about the war effort
-Personal liberties were restricted during World War
-African Americans faced violence, discrimination, and race riots in Northern cities
-Northern manufacturers distributed free railroad passes to bring Southern African Americans into Chicago, New York, Philadelphia
-The 40,000 African American soldiers who saw combat fought in segregated divisions; Over 600 black soldiers were commissioned as officers in the U.S. Army
-World War I led to the Great Migration of African Americans for war-related jobs in Northern cities
-367,710 African Americans were drafted, but only 10% served in combat duty; Most African Americans worked as laborers in Army Services of Supplies (SOS) units
African Americans saw changes due to the war
-The CPI encouraged bond drives to raise money for the war
-The CPI created posters, movies, speeches and censored the press
-The Committee on Public Information (CPI) was created to make propaganda to support the war effort
The War at Home Continued 1-13-14
Warm Up
~Create your own Propaganda!
-If you wanted to get people behind the war, what would you do to convince them? What type of propaganda would it be? What media would you use?
"Returning Soldiers"
1. Pop-Corn Read the Primary Source Document together
2. Answer the Discussion Questions on
your own sheet of paper.
3. Use sentence starters!
Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.
1. Pop Corn Read
2. Work with your neighbor or independently to answer the questions.
3. Answer on your own sheet of paper.
~Use Sentence Starters.
Changes on the Home-front 1-14-15
Finish up the "Returning Soldiers" worksheet and discuss.
Answer the following questions...
1. What factors limit you from fully exercising your right to free speech?
2. Do you think they are fair or not?
3. Are some limits on freedom of speech necessary? Explain.
Wilson Fights for Peace 1-22-15
Warm Up 1-20-15

Definition:a plan by President Wilson on how to resolve issues arising from WWI.

Example: The Fourteen Points was based on "the principal of justice to all peoples and nationalities."
Fourteen Points
Definition: an association of nations to preserve peace

Example: ____________ did not join the League of Nations
League of Nations
Definition: imposed on Germany by the Allied powers after World War I which demanded reparations from the Germans

Example: The Treaty of Versailles left Germany____________________.
Treaty of Versailles
Reparations are payments demanded of a defeated nation by the victor in a war to offset the cost of the war.
Germans resented both the war-guilt clause and reparations, fearing that the payments would cripple their economic recovery.


Lloyd George of England, insisted that Germany accept responsibility for starting the war by inclusion of the war-guilt clause.
The treaty required Germany to pay $33 billion in reparations to the Allies.
“Hang the Kaiser”
When the heads of the 4 major Allies- France, Great Britain, Italy, and the United States (The Big Four) – met in Paris for peace talks, they were more focused on self-interest than on Wilson’s plan.
The Big Four
Countries would work together in the League of Nations to resolve conflicts before those conflicts escalated into war.
Fourteen Points 14
Restoring land taken from countries by war would restore respect for international law.
Redrawing borders on the basis of self-determination would reduce conflicts among ethnic groups.

Fourteen Points 6-13

Ships would be able to travel freely in times of war.
U-boat attacks on shipping had drawn the United States into WWI.
Fourteen Points 2
Point One- Countries would not make secret treaties and alliances.
Secret alliances had been a cause of WW I.
Fourteen Points 1

To End All Wars
Wilson’s Fourteen Points
The desires of colonial peoples would be taken into consideration in creating a more peaceful world.
Imperialism and competition for colonies had been a cause of WW I.
Fourteen Points 5

Countries would reduce their stockpiles of weapons.
Militarism had been a cause of WW I.
Fourteen Points 4
Free trade among countries would promote economic growth and reduce trade conflicts that could draw nations into war.

Fourteen Points 3
Preread 398-403
1. Define the terms on page 398
2. Top 399. What did Woodrow Wilson believe?
3. P. 400 How many new nations were created in 1919?
4. What are their names?
5. P. 400 How many Allied occupied zones?
6. What are their name?
7. P. 402 What is this about? (Echoes of the Great War)
Why wasn't Germany at the Paris Peace Conference?
P. 48

Warm Up P. 113
What is your grade?
Full transcript