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Transcript of Food
This presentation offers a brief overview of the main food groups, focusing on their nutritional value, health benefits, energy sources and affects on obesity. Throughout the research process, the group adhered to a checklist of five criteria, namely accuracy, authority, objectivity, currency and coverage, to ensure we have provided credible and reliable information (Metzger 2007).
Presented by: Ben Rohrt, Katherine Patti, Brianna Gimisis, Kate Paul-Drevensek and Angel Melton.
The health benefits from eating a diet full of vegetables are enormous. The vitamins, nutrients and antioxidants received through consuming vegetables are vital for your health and well being. (Better Health Channel, 2015)
Consuming a diet full of different vegetables provides a wide range of vitamins into your system. These vitamins aid to help keep your body healthy, fight infections and boost your immune system. Vegetables are also packed with a nutrient called antioxidants which can assist in cellular damage and prevent diseases like cancer, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. (DCC, 2013)
Vegetables provide a range of nutrients such as, potassium, fiber, folate, antioxidants and vitamins. Vegetables that provide potassium into your diet help regulate a healthy and normal blood pressure. Fiber helps to lower cholesterol, lowers the risk of heart disease and ensures the digestive track is running smoothly. (USDA, 2012)The vitamins found in vegetables are varied and all assist in ensuring that every part of your body is working efficiently. (DCC, 2013)
affects on OBESITY
Vegetables are a low calorie food that contain fiber, water and carbohydrates that assist in keeping you fuller for longer as opposed to processed carbohydrates that are high in calories and lack the nutrients and vitamins vegetables provide. (Atkins, 2015) Replacing junk food and processed snacks with fresh vegetable alternatives can half the calorie intake more than half which can reduce the risk of obesity.
Vegetables contain a compound called carbohydrates that provide an excellent source of energy as they are easily digested and provide your body with sugars such as fructose and glucose that is then used for energy. (Adam Dave, LiveStrong, 2011) Vegetables that are made up of complex carbohydrates are digested slowly for a long and even release of energy, whereas simple carbohydrates are easily digested resulting in a short and rapid release of energy. (BetterHealth, 2015)
affects on Obesity
The nutritional in meats can vary depending on the type of animal, the environment it was raised and the food it eats. Red meats, poultry and fish all contain vital proteins, vitamins, minerals and Omega-3 fatty acids. These are rich in essential amino-acids and have a very high biological value (Williams 2007) which means they have roughly the same amounts of essential amino acids as required by humans (EUFIC 2015).
The protein in meats helps the development of every part of our bodies – from the bones to the skin and everything in between. Specifically for men, the zinc in red meat helps maintain the health of their productive system (National Heart Foundation of Australia). Fish provides the richest source of Omega’3 fatty acids which aids pregnant women both during their pregnancy, for development of their unborn child and after, in preventing perinatal depression (Coletta, Bell and Roman 2010).
The iron in meat is very important for energy, specifically to woman (during all stages of life) as it is absorbed much easier than other forms of the mineral and in turn increasing energy levels and building stronger immune systems(National Heart Foundation of Australia). Contrary to previous beliefs, new studies suggest that cooked meat provides us with more energy than raw meat (Abu 2011).
A high red meat consumption can potentially increase chances of obesity as previous studies have found a link between red meats and weight gain (Rouhani, Salehi-Abargouei, Surkan and Azadbakht 2014) however in saying that eating grass-fed meat can help lower body fat as they are higher in Conjugated Linoleic Acid (Williams 2007). Skinless chicken have little to no effect on obesity (Farrell 2015) and including fish in your diet can aid the weight loss process and also reduce heart disease (Mori, TA, Bao, DQ, Burke, V, Puddey, IB, Watts, GF, and Beilin, LJ 1999).
affects on obesity
Fruits contribute many essential nutrients to our diets that are fundamental to basic health. There are many important nutrients from fruit, a couple important ones are:
: found in most fruit, but greatest in bananas, dried fruits (apricots/peaches etc) and avocado. Potassium enhances muscle strength, metabolism and electrolytic functions, and may help to maintain a healthy blood pressure.
: found in berries, bananas and pears; helps to reduce blood cholesterol and can lower the risk of heart disease and diabetes.
: found in citrus fruits, cantaloupe, kiwi fruit and mango. This vitamin is important to growth and repair of body tissues, healing of wounds and form scar tissue. (USDA, 2012)
There are many health benefits from eating fruit in your regular diet! Some include the reduced risk in obesity, diabetes type 2 and heart disease. The risk of developing certain cancer types can be reduced, and the maintenance of a healthy digestive system is always an added bonus (USDA, 2012).
A main energy source from fruit can be found in sucrose, which is composed of 2 simple sugars called glucose and fructose. Glucose when combined with insulin creates a chemical named Pyruvate, which is stored as energy called ATP (Sirah Dubois, Demand Media, 2014). ATP provides the body with quick explosive-like energy, necessary for exercise such as sprints.
Although sucrose is an energy provider, if the energy is not used it will be stored as fat. Fruits contain natural sugars and although it sounds healthier than the average table sugar, both provide the same fatty glucose to the body (Zoe Harcombe, 2011). So even with the nutritional value of fruits, they have to be consumed in moderation!
However in a regular diet fruits are a healthier alternative to packaged processed foods, they contain less calories and provide greater nutrients to sustain from weight gain.
'An apple a day will keep the doctor away!'
Ginger Sport, (2015), Vegetables. Retrieved from: https://www.gingersport.com.au/six-vegetables-to-try-with-your-kids/
The checklist model’s five key criteria (Metzger, 2007) showed that it is necessary for resources to be assessed based on their accuracy, authority, objectivity, currency and coverage. This checklist enabled us as a group to have an equal understanding of what sources are acceptable to use in our assessment. We ensured that the author of the sources we used had relevant credentials and prior knowledge on the topic and that the information they provided was current, up to date, specific and specialised in the field we were researching. Lastly, we found a wide range of sources that had a wide coverage that covered all our subtopics adequately.
Throughout this presentation, the group learnt how to research and use credible and valid information, to assist them in producing factual and interesting information about the chosen food groups. They acquired knowledge about collaborate learning and used these skills to create an online education tool as a team. The information presented about the different food groups and their nutritional value, health benefits, energy sources and affects on obesity reflect the learning processes, collaboration and cooperation endured.
Image: 'Weddell Seal Muscle' © 2015 PolarTREC
Ababouch, L 27 May 2005, 'Vitamins and Minerals', FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department, viewed 22 April 2015 <http://www.fao.org/fishery/topic/14827/en>
Abu, AF 9 November 2011, 'Cooked Meat Provides More Energy', The Harvard Crimson, viewed 27 April 2015, <http://www.thecrimson.com/article/2011/11/9/research-cooking-energy/>
Coletta, JM, Bell, SJ And Roman, AS 2010, 'Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Pregnancy', National Institutes of Health, viewed 21 April 2015 <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3046737/>
Farrell, D 2015, 'The role of poultry in human nutrition', Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, viewed on 20 April 2015 <http://www.fao.org/3/a-al714e.pdf>
Mori, TA, Bao, DQ, Burke, V, Puddey, IB, Watts, GF, and Beilin, LJ 1999, 'Dietary fish as a major component of weight-loss diet: effect on serum lipids, glucose, and insulin metabolism in overweight hypertensive subjects' The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, viewed 21 April 2015, <http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/70/5/817.short>
National Heart Foundation of Australia, 'Meat and Poultry', National Heart Foundation of Australia, viewed 20 April 2015, <http://www.heartfoundation.org.au/healthy-eating/food-and-nutrition-facts/Pages/meat-and-poultry.aspx>
Rouhani, MH, Salehi-Abargouei, A, Surkan, PJ And Azadbakht, L 12 May 2014, 'Is there a relationship between red or processed meat intake and obesity? A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies', World Obesity, Wiley Online Library, viewed 20 April 2015, <http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com.ezproxy.lib.swin.edu.au/doi/10.1111/obr.12172/epdf>
Williams, PG 2007, 'Nutritional composition of red meat', University of Wollongong, Faculty of Health and Behavioural Science, viewed on 20 April 2015, <http://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1053&context=hbspapers>
EUFIC European Food Information Council 2015, What does high biological value protein and low biological protein mean? And what is an example food of each?, EUFIC European Food Information Council, Frequently Asked Questions, viewed 20 April 2015, <http://www.eufic.org/page/en/page/faq/faqid/biological-value-protein/>
USDA (United States Department of Agriculture), 2 June 2011, Why is it important to eat fruit? Viewed 27 April 2015, http://choosemyplate.gov/food-groups/fruits-why.html,
Rudrappa, U, 2009, Fruit Nutrition Facts, viewed 26 April 2015, http://www.nutrition-and-you.com/fruit-nutrition.html
Harper, L, 2014, ACTIVE, 18 Energy-Boosting Fruits, viewed 28th April 2015, http://www.active.com/nutrition/articles/18-energy-boosting-fruits
Dubois, S, Demand Media, 2014, How does sucrose provide energy?, viewed 28 April 2015, http://woman.thenest.com/sucrose-provide-energy-6883.html
Harcombe, Z, 2011, Zoe Harcombe, Fruit is fuelling the obesity epidemic, viewed 28 April 2015, http://www.zoeharcombe.com/the-knowledge/fruit-is-fuelling-the-obesity-epidemic/
Live Strong. 2011. How Do Vegetables Give You Energy. Viewed 27th April 2015 http://www.livestrong.com/article/436490-how-do-vegetables-give-you-energy/.
USDA (United States Department of Agriculture), 2012, Why is it important to eat vegetables? Viewed 26th April 2015: http://choosemyplate.gov/food-groups/vegetables-why.html
Dairy Council California. 2013. Health Benefits of Vegetables. Viewed 26th April 2015 http://www.healthyeating.org/Healthy-Eating/All-Star-Foods/Vegetables.aspx.
Better Health Channel. 2011. Fruit and Vegetables. Viewed 27th April 2015 http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Fruit_and_vegetables?Open.
Atkins. 2015. 5 Reasons Vegetables May Help You Lose Weight and Live Longer. Viewed 27th April 2015, http://www.atkins.com/how-it-works/library/articles/5-reasons-vegetables-may-help-you-lose-weight-and-live-longer.
Fast Food Nutrition, McDonalds Big Mac Nutrition Facts, viewed 12 May 2015, http://www.fastfoodnutrition.org/10_r-mcdonalds/1819_i-big-mac-nutrition-facts.html
Fast Food Nutrition, McDonalds Large French Fries Nutrition Facts, viewed 12 May 2015, http://www.fastfoodnutrition.org/10_r-mcdonalds/1889_i-large-french-fries-nutrition-facts.html
Fast Food Nutrition, McDonalds Coca-Cola Classic Nutrition Facts, viewed 12 May 2015, http://www.fastfoodnutrition.org/10_r-mcdonalds/1901_i-coca-cola-classic-nutrition-facts.html
National Heart Foundation of Australia, Saturated Fats, viewed 15 May 1015, http://www.heartfoundation.org.au/healthy-eating/fats/Pages/saturated-fats.aspx
Harvard School of Public Health, Food and Diet, viewed 15 May 2015, http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/obesity-prevention-source/obesity-causes/diet-and-weight/
• PolarTREC 15 February 2012, 'Weddell Seal Muscle' © 2015 PolarTREC, viewed 15 May 2015,<http://www.polartrec.com/expeditions/weddell-seals-in-the-ross-sea/journals/2012-02-15>
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affects on obesity
Fast food is defined by the oxford dictionary as "easily prepared processed food served in snack bars and restaurants as a quick meal or to be taken away." (Oxford Dictionary)
Typically these foods do not pose health benefits but instead they may induce adverse effects on health due to their higher than recommended calorie, fat, sugar and sodium content.
Although fast food does contain elements of what a person needs to consume on a daily basis, it is usually provided in excess of the RDI as well as in a form less ideal such as saturated vs unsaturated fats that may lead to poor nutrition and therefore poor health.
Fast food usually provides little to no nutritional value but instead high calorie meals that can contain nearly a whole days worth of calories or fats.
A typical meal from McDonalds consisting of a burger such as a Big Mac, a large fries and a large soft drink contains 83% of the RDI of fats, 58% of the RDI of sodium, 55% of the RDI of carbohydrates which accounts for 1250 calories of 62.5% of the recommended calorie intake for an adult in one meal. (Fastfood, 2015)
Energy in fast food comes from two main sources, carbohydrates and fats. In both cases, the energy comes from the "unhealthy" version of each. The carbohydrates in fast food is made of mainly simple carbohydrates such as sugars which provide energy that is fast burning and provides quick bursts but may also lead to fatigue when used.
The fats found in fast food typically are saturated fats. Saturated fats should be consumed in smaller quantities to "healthy" fats such as Omega 3 as they have negative effects on a persons health. (Heart Foundation)
Fast foods are well recognised as contributors to obesity due to their high fat and high calorie content. The presence of large quantities of saturated fats and simple carbohydrates not only acts as a contributor to obesity but has wide ranging implications on health including diabetes and high cholesterol (Heart Foundation).
Due to the high calorie content in each fast food meal, eating just one fast food meal can add up to 300 calories to the normal daily intake of an adult. Consistent consumption of the increased calorie intake therefore can contribute to an increase in weight and a higher chance of obesity.