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DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

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by

Hanaka Ikeda

on 17 June 2015

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Transcript of DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

A Journey Through The Digestive System
The process of breaking down and absorbing food is called
Digestion
.
The systems that deals with it is called
Digestive System
.
Digestion
Digestion starts even before the food reaches your mouth. The smell of food triggers your salivary glands to produce saliva.
Mechanical Digestion
Physically
breaking down food into small pieces.
e.g. grinding in the mouth, peristalic contractions in the stomach
Chemical Digestion
Chemically
breaking down food into small pieces that can be used by cells.
e.g. amylase
Mouth
Tongue
Made from several muscles.
Mixes broken food with saliva and the food is made into a ball called
bolus
.
Salivary Glands
Produces
amylase
, an enzyme which breaks down starch into sugar.
Produces saliva.
Pharynx
Muscular tube that connects the mouth to the esophagus.
Allows food to pass through.
Used in both digestive and respiratory system.
Epiglottis
Flap of tissue that separates food and air.
Prevent food going down the trachea.
Prevents food from leaving the stomach.
Esophagus
Transports food and water from the mouth to the stomach.
Made from muscular tube and the muscle pushes the food down to the stomach.
Produces peristalsis waves.
Liver
Stomach
Gall Bladder
Stores, produces and concentrates bile.
It is hidden just behind the liver.
Pancreas
Produces enzymes.
Produces insulin.
Duodenum
First few centimetres of small intestine.
Receives secretion from pancreas/liver to help digest food.
Small Intestine
Large Intestine
Appendix
Small tube same size as your little finger.
Acts as a 'safe house' for good bacteria.
Rectum
Anus
Temporary storehouse for faeces.
Food passes, a little at a time.
Completes the digestion of
carbohydrates
and
proteins
and turns into small molecules of
sugar
,
fatty

acids
and
glycerol
and
amino acids
.
Small molecules go through thin walls of
villi
in the small intestine.
Liver is the biggest organ in your body.
Helps to clean blood.
Produces bile.
Stores glycogen.
There are
two
types of digestion.
Food Groups
Food Group
Why we need it
What it is found in
Starch
Sugar
Fat
Protein
Vitamins & Minerals
Fiber
Produce energy
Quick release of energy
Store energy, lnsulation, protect organs and to make cell membranes
Growth and repair
General Health
Prevent constipation and bowel cancer
Rice, potatoes, bread, pasta
Chocolate, fizzy drinks, sweets, fruit juice
Oil, butter, cheese, cream
Meat, eggs, fish, nuts, soya beans
Fruits
Corn, beans, avocado, oatmeal
Enzymes
Made of protein can be used many times.
Are responsible for specific chemical reactions.
Work at optimum pH and temperature.
Works the best in 37 degrees celsius and pH 2 and 7.
Types of Enzymes
Enzyme groups
Food acted on
Food broken down into
Location
Carbohydrase (eg. Amylase)
Starch
sugar
mouth, small intestine
Protease (eg. Pepsin)
Proteins
amino acids
stomach, small intestine
Lipase
Fats
fatty acids, glycerol
small intestine
By Hanaka Ikeda & Haru Ooka & Karin Arata
Glands produce hydrochloric acid (HCl) and pepsin.
Digests food and kills bacteria
Faeces are removed from the anus.
Villi
Increases the surface area of the walls of the small intestine so that food can be digested faster.
Water and some disolved vitamins are absorbed.
Remaining substances form faeces.
Common Illness/Disorder In Digestive System
Heart Burn
Irritable bowel syndrome
Appendicitis
constipation
Cirrhosis
Jaundice
Heart Burn
Heart burn is when concentrated acid in the stomach comes up the eosophagus and your mouth. It is discribed as your heart is burning because your eosophagus is behind your heart.
Jaundice (yellow skin)
Occurs when your liver doesnt break down bilirubin. Bilirubin is a waste product of the normal breakdown of red blood cells.
Work Sited
http://dutifuldigestivejwright.weebly.com/diagram-and-elements.html
http://www.webmd.com/heartburn-gerd/your-digestive-system
http://science.nationalgeographic.com/science/health-and-human-body/human-body/digestive-system-article/
http://www.innerbody.com/image/digeov.html
http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/digestive-diseases/Pages/default.aspx
http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/heartburn/basics/definition/con-20019545
http://www.webmd.com/children/digestive-diseases-jaundice
Full transcript