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T.O.K. Presentation: Placebo Effects

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Juliana Najm

on 17 December 2013

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Transcript of T.O.K. Presentation: Placebo Effects

Chapel School
T.O.K. Presentation
Placebo Effects

Real Life Situation
, professor of orthopedics
Dr. Bruce Moseley
knee surgery
Biochemical Explanation
Area in the brain correspondent to the one treated with placebo receives more opioid and feels less pain

Alternative Solution
Juliana Najm
Marcella B. Maria
December 13th, 2013
: patients would have healed on their own anyways with time
Placebo effect
: healing of all 60 patients
Real surgery:
the ones that had it really needed
Knowledge Question
How does placebo affect one's knowledge and awareness of one's actual health?
How does emotion and sense perception affects one's knowledge of the natural sciences?
Can emotion be trusted in order to comprehend our actual physical state?
To what extent does psychological knowledge affect the healing process?
Our Personal Stories...
Knower's Perspective
Irritable Bowl Syndrome
How do we know this?
Areas of Knowledge
The Sciences
Areas of Knowledge
Ways of Knowing
My Debutant Party
Placebo Effect on Pills
According to
the less the patients know, the more they will believe:
Makes me
feel better
even though it
isn't proven to do
Human Sciences
Psychology: the way the brain responds to a drug and how it affects the way someone feels
Natural Sciences
Biochemistry: involves a drug's interaction with a body to treat a disease or condition
Randomized into 3 groups
All 3 groups claimed improvements
60 patients received
60 patients received
Arthroscopic Lavage
60 patients received
fake surgery
Placebo group reported the best outcomes
Ways of Knowing
Emotion & Perception
Sensual perception => visual perception
Medicine's appearance alters the patients perception of it
Placebo Effect on Pills
Affects the person's emotions
Psychological Reasoning
Because it worked in previous patients who felt better and were cured
Trust: inform the patient the medicine contains ingredients that will heal the condition
The person reasons that the medicine will help her
Brain releases opioid
Natural pain killer
Spiritual faith/healing
Healthy Lifestyle:
Belief System & Positivity:
Ethical Role
Positivity in taking Placebo
Unethical aspects
Placebo had positive outcome in R.L.S.
At first, patient must be told that placebo is effective in order for it to work
Eventually, the truth is revealed and still most patients claimed the knees were feeling as good as before
Indian Tribes:
Surgery was made 8 years prior to last interview, 15% complained of pain after finding out the truth
Natural herbs
The true addiction is not the medication but the way it makes her feel, due to the release of substances in the brain
How does placebo affect one's knowledge and awareness of one's actual health?
Our bodies have the capacity to do it on its own if trained properly
Placebo induces our minds to make our own medication.
Many times the pain is in the mind and the body can fix it on its own without medical assistance.
We got so used to having medical intervention, we believe that to be the only source of a cure
We don't need medication to cure but rather to release current pain
van de Lagemaat, R. 2005, Theory of Knowledge for IB Diploma, Cambridge University Press, London.
Baylor College Of Medicine. "Study Finds Common Knee Surgery No Better Than Placebo." ScienceDaily, 12 Jul. 2002. Web. 2 Dec. 2013.
Enck, Paul, and Winfried Hauser. "Beware the Nocebo Effect." Nytimes.com. The New York Times, 10 Aug. 2012. Web. 2 Dec. 2013. <http://www.nytimes.com/2012/08/12/opinion/sunday/beware-the-nocebo-effect.html?_r=1&>.
Decher, David. "10 Crazy Facts About the Placebo Effect." Listverse.com. Listverse, 16 Feb. 2013. Web. 01 Dec. 2013. <http://listverse.com/2013/02/16/10-crazy-facts-about-the-placebo-effect/>.
Jaffe, Adi. "Even When You Know It's Fake: The Strength of the Placebo Effect." Psychology Today. Sussex, 3 Jan. 2011. Web. 2 Dec. 2013. <http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/all-about-addiction/201101/even-when-you-know-its-fake-the-strength-the-placebo-effect>.
Keogh, Daniel, and Luke Harris. "Strange Powers of the Placebo Effect." Devour.com. Zombiecorp, n.d. Web. 02 Dec. 2013. <http://devour.com/video/strange-powers-of-the-placebo-effect/>.
Kaptchuk, T. J., E. Friedlander, J. M. Kelley, M. N. Sanchez, E. Kokkotou, J. P. Singer, M. Kowalczykowski, F. J. Miller, I. Kirsch, and A. J. Lembo. "Placebos without Deception: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Irritable Bowel Syndrome." PLOS ONE. Plosone.com, 22 Dec. 2010. Web. 02 Dec. 2013. <http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0015591>.
Change in dietary habits
Positive people are more prone to cure from serious diseases
Did placebo influence in the patient's knowledge of her actual health?
After years exposed, the idea that the placebo helps overcomes the truth
is a pharmacological inert substance that seems to produce an effect similar to what would be expected of a pharmacologically active substance
I shall please
Ways of Knowing
Language & Reason
: An authority in the matter (doctor) told me that the specific surgery works. He used language to pass on his knowledge.
: If an authority told me + it worked on other people= it must work on me
Why does Placebo make sense to me?
Why does placebo deceive me and my knowledge of its effectiveness?
Reason why it actually works!
Emotional reason why it works
According to what we believe...
RLS Conclusion
Even though patients are...
Paying for a treatment they are not receiving
Being tricked into believing they had an operation
They are overall benefiting because...
They are satisfied with the outcome: the real objective they came in with
There are no side effects
Full transcript