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Relations between Pakistan and U.S.A in cold war(1947-1991)
Transcript of Relations between Pakistan and U.S.A in cold war(1947-1991)
(1947 to 2013)
FARRUKH NADEEM SHEIKH
Relations between Pakistan and U.S.A in cold war(1947-1991)
United States of America remains one of the first countries to have established diplomatic ties with Pakistan. Although the relationship dates back to October 20, 1947, it can be extrapolated that the relations have been based strictly on military and economic support.
Pakistan’s first prime minister,
Liaquat Ali Khan
visited United States to meet president Harry S Truman. It is alleged that during PM Khan’s first visit to US, president Truman requested Pakistan’s premier to let the CIA formulate a base in Pakistan, strictly to keep an eye on the activities of Soviet Union—a request which was not granted by Khan.Throughout the course of these years
many officials from Pakistan
such as commander-in-chief Ayub Khan, foreign minister Zafrullah Khan, foreign secretary Ikramullah, finance minister Ghulam Muhammad, defence secretary Sikander Mirza and special envoy Mir Laiq Ali visited US, aiming to receive financial aids from the country.
Pakistan signed Mutual Defense Assistance Agreement
with the United States in May under
. Under the agreement, many Pakistani soldiers went to United States for training whereas US also established a Military Assistance Advisory Group (Maag) in Rawalpindi.
During the decade, the pro-American sentiments in
Western side of Pakistan
were at an all time high. However, the military and financial assistance was directed more towards West Pakistan, which caused an uproar and feeling of distrust in East Pakistan.
Ayub Khan allowed United States to fly spy mission to Soviet Union from Pakistan’s territory and accompanied by his daughter visited United States of America.
Being an important ally for US during the cold war, United States supported Pakistan, despite the
. Pakistan also assisted president Richard Nixon in making his first visit to Peoples’ Republic of China.
During 1971’s war, US is speculated to have provided Pakistan with arms and military aid, in order to discourage India from
penetrating further into the cities of Pakistan because
losing Pakistan meant losing an important ally in the soviet war.
Moreover, as per the elections result, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto was elected as the president of Pakistan and later on became the prime minister in 1974.
Although Bhutto was considered a socialist, he was a close and respected friend of president Nixon, which went in Pakistan’s favour.
CENTO and SEATO
Pakistan was a leading member of the
Central Treaty Organization (CENTO)
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO)
from its adoption in 1954-55 and allied itself with the United States during the most of the Cold war. In 1971-72, Pakistan ended its alliance with the United States after the
in which East Pakistan successfully seceded with the aid of India. The promise of economic aid from the United States was instrumental in creating these agreements. At the time the pact was adopted, Pakistan's relationship with the United States was the friendliest in
President Dwight Eisenhower requested prime minister Suhrawardy to lease
Peshawar Air Station
to the American Army for keeping an eye on soviet Union and its ballistic missile programme. The request was granted by the prime minister.
increased the amount of aid Pakistan
was designated to receive from the consortium of Pakistan, half a billion dollars of which were lost in 1965’s Indo-Pakistan war—war staged to cause a rebel in Indian occupied Kashmir. The war also led US to place economical and military embargoes on Pakistan, which resulted in an economic collapse.
In the 1980s,the plan to recognise national security concerns and accepting Pakistan' assurances that it did not intend to construct a nuclear weapon, Congress waived restrictions (Symington Amendment) on military assistance to Pakistan. In October 1980, a high level delegation and General
travels to U.S., first meeting with former president
 Although, the meeting was to discuss the
Nixon made it clear he is in favor of Pakistan gaining nuclear weapons capability, while correcting that he is not in a race for the presidential elections The following year,
made it clear to
that Pakistan "won't make a compromise" on its nuclear weapons program
Afghanistan in 1989 and the restoration of democracy in Pakistan, the Pak-US relations quickly deteriorated and once again US focused on Pakistan's nuclear program and changed its bilateral aid policy towards its former close ally and passed the Pressler amendment, presenting the civilian regime with a serious economic crisis, while significantly improving the relations with India.
Pakistan found itself in a state of extremely high insecurity as tensions mounted with India and Afghanistan's infighting continued. Within a brief period, all channels of bilateral aid to Pakistan were shut down. During this period the US provided negligible economic aid to Pakistan and almost no military assistance. In 1998,. Nawaz Sharif's ordering the nuclear tests was met with great hostility by United States and President Clinton placed the economic embargo on Pakistan. The relations were also refrained and strained after Kargil War with India. Soon after the nuclur tests, the military coup was commenced against Nawaz Sharif.
US-PAK relations just before 9/11
* Just before 9/11 the Pak-American relationship wasn’t that good.
* Nuclear Attacks
* America was more close to India.
US Allegations on Al-Qaeda
After the September 11 attacks on United States , whole scenario of world politics has been changed. US had to suffer a large number of casualties of its people. The Al-Qaida was blamed for those attacks and US wanted to take revenge and to punish Al-Qaeda for this offence. President Bush declares war against terrorism and decided to attack Afghanistan where Osama Bin Laden and his companions were hiding.
War on Terror
War on Terror got started after this incident.
America blamed Muslim Terrorists for all this.
Claimed that Al-Qaeda is in Afghanistan and they started to send their armed forces into Afghanistan and then after that in the tribal areas of Pakistan.
They forgave US$1 billion in Pakistani Debt after becoming the ally in war on terror. This happened in 2003.
Role of Pervez Musharaf
Sir Pervez Musharraf played a vital role in Afghan war.America gave Pakistan two options
To help them in war.
Or to take side of Afghanistan.
Musharraf stated that “We had no option other than supporting them as we were threatened by America for Bombing Pakistan to Stone age”.
USA is always worried about Pakistan nuclear bombs because they believe it can go in bad hands like Talibans.
Pakistan Nuclear program is always under scanner of USA .
USA wants Pakistan Nuclear assets.
Some important events
In June, 2008 an air strike killed 11 paramilitary soldiers of Pakistan Army, after this shameless incident by U.S persuaded Pakistani high command to speak out against U.S.A and they did so.
Then conditions got severe ; Media and people of Pakistan strongly criticized America.
Effect of 9/11 On PAK-U.S.A Relationship
Overview of 9/11
On 9 september 2001 an immense incident took place in U.S. It happened to be in the most prominent city of U.S and whole world.
It took world by a huge surprise.
World Trade center and Pentagon were destroyed by the so called terrorist attack.
It was a bright sunny morning in the American city of New York. The people were busy in their routine work. Previous to that day, September 11 was not a special day for the citizen of US While in future that day would become the most important day for the people of America.
9/11 Attacks snaps
Airspace and Bases provided to U.S.A
To overcome Afghanistan U.S.A needed the air bases and airspace. Pakistan provided Shamsi & Shahbaz air bases to USA.
General Pervez Musharraf signed agreement of this. By these bases USA entered in Afghanistan
Terms of Relation
USA behavior is always been dual. USA always gave aid to Pakistan on terms. So Pakistan has always worked on the policy of do more.
U.S.A had always been searching for their own benefits either it is in Pakistan’s favor or not..
In 2005 Pakistan faced a natural disaster of earthquake. This incident effected Pakistan Economy on a large scale. US Marine and Army Helicopter came to help at that moment. By this Pak USA relations were good.
America also provided help to stable Pakistan economy.
C.I.A using the Drone technology in Pakistan from 2004, after the arrival of Barack Obama in White House the use of Drones on Pakistani areas is increased. Pakistani public stated against the Drone Attack on Pakistani soil in which many innocent people were killed.
Public polls show that between 75-90% Pakistani bitterly opposed the drone attacks.
If we study the whole scenario of U.S-PAK relationship since 1947.
We observe that U.S just doesn’t get happy at any cost at any struggle from Pakistan’s side.
This is the behaviour of a typical Mother-in-Law.
How these relations can be improved
This relation is mutual as we know then we also know that a mutual relationship requires sacrifices from both sides.
As a married life succeeds only when both sacrifice for each other.
U.S.A just looks for its own interests and screw Pakistan every time where they don’t get any advantage from the situation.
Raymond Davis and Aafia Siddiqui
Osama Bin Laden’s Death
Salala Check Post Attack
Long Live Pakistan