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Unit 5

Art And Design Research
by

Natalie Campling

on 21 March 2011

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Transcript of Unit 5

Photography The Discovery Of Photography

The first Camera was not invented until the 19th century, but the basic elements of one had already been known for hundreds of years.
The first element of a working camera is the effect of a lighted area separated from a darkened area with only a pin hole between the two. An inverted image of the lightened area will produce in the darkened area onto a flat surface, such as the walls or a hung sheet. Inserting a lens in the hole would then produce a crisper and clearer image. This process has been documented back as far as the 15th Century. This technology was used by artists to sketch objects more quickly and precisely. This Contraption was called the "Camera obscura".
The second element of the camera was the existance of materials that would change perminantly when exposed to light. These light sensitive chemicals had been experimented with for hundred of years before being used to coat a flat surface, which was not tested until recent years.
Putting these two elements together proved difficult. It was in the early 1800's that the first experiments took place, attempting to create images on paper coated in the light sensitive chemicals.
The First photograph was taken by frenchman Joseph-Nicephore Niepce in 1814, using a sliding wooden box camera, the the perminancy of the image became problomatic as it faded, soon after it was captured. Years later the problem was solved with the help of the Daguerrotype Camera, and the first perminant photograph (named "heliograph" by Niepce) was created in 1826. The image was the result of an 8 hour long exposure. View from the window at Le Gras

Taken in 1826 By Joseph-Nicephore Niepce. The First Perminant Photograph Taken with a camera obscura. "Photograph" Based on the greek phrase "Drawing with light"
The Start of Professional Photography

Although photography was now within reach, there were still problems that remained unsolved. An example of this was that although the image would appear and stay, the image was easily lost as the surface chemicals could be damaged. Another problem was the exposure time, which was much longer than practical for portraits which were now in much demand due to the fasination of the newly invented art dicipline.
It was little longer than 10 years after this discovery that Niepce associated with fellow inventor Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre and devised a way to perminantly reproduce an image, and Daguerre's camera, the Daguerretype, needed only 20 minutes exposure. a much more practical proccess of photography was made.
This development was announced to the public in 1839, and made a huge impact on the world. When this process was perfected enough for common use, the first ever portrait studios were opened.
The stereotype of the photographer buried in his portable dark room started around the time of the civil war (mid 1800's). This tent consisted of a portable dark room as well as all necissary camera equiptment, that collapsed into a moderatley large suitcase. This invention allowed the development of professional photography. One of the first Daguerretype camera's Portable Dark room and camera Timeline 1500-1700- Camera obscuras were fitted with simple lenses
to focus images more sharply and to make them
brighter. From this time on they were used by
artists to help make their drawings more accurate. 1727- Johann Schulze, a swiss professor of anatomy accidently
discovered that silver compounds were photo-sensitive.
They changed colour when exposed to light. 1826- Joseph Niepce, a french inventor produced the worlds
first permanent photograph (heliograph- named by
Niepce) on a pewter plate coated with light sensitive
bitumen of judea. It hardened where light fell on to it. 1835- William Henry Fox Talbot experiments with photographic
processes, using paper sensitized with silver chloride in
the camera obscura. Talbot exposes "latticed window,
lacock abbey" the earliest surviving photographic negative.
The basis for all modern photography before the digital age
is established. A negative is exposed, and from it any number
of prints can be made. 1843- Albert S. Southworth and Josiah J. Hawes open a Daguerretype portrait
studio in Boston, and take what are generally agreed to be the finest
portraits in that medium. 1849- Sir David Brewster perfects a stereoscopic viewer. when a matching pair
of photographs are placed in the viewer, a three dimensional effect is
produced. They became very popular in the 1850s and 60's. 1851- The worlds first open photographic exhibition is mounted at the
Great Exhibition in the Crystal Palace in London's Hyde Park, with
over seven hundred entries from six nations. 1851- Frederick Scott Archer invented the collodion process-
a way of producing photo sensitive glass plates that
needed shorter exposure times and resulted in better images.
Although still complex, cameras were now freed from the
studio and the first travel and war photographs began to
appear. 1858- The french commercial portrait photographer Nadar
makes the first successful aerial photograph, from a balloon. 1861- James Clerk-Maxwell, a Scottish Physicist, demonstrated
the first colour image, produced using red, green and blue
filters. 1880- The first half tone photograph
was printed in a newspaper. 1888- George Eastman introduces the first Kodak camera,
that revolutionised photography-making it available
for everyone. He also launched a mail order processing
and printing service. 1893- Thomas Edison invents 35mm film. 1900- The first Kodak Brownie camera, loaded
with flexible roll film went on sale in the
USA. 1906- The first panchromatic films and plates
went on sale. they were sensitive to blue
green and red light- which improved the
detail and tones in black and white photos. 1907- The Lumiére brothers in france introduced
autochrome plates- the first commercially
available form of colour photography. 1913- The speed Graphic Press camera was launched
in the USA. It went on to become the standard
camera for press photographers for the next 40
years. 1918- Christian Schad, a member of the dadaist
art movement,makes his first cameraless images
directly on to photographic paper. 1921- Man Ray and Moholy-Nagy produced photograms,
images formed by placing objects on photographic
paper and then exposing it to light. 1924- The german company Leitz introduced the
Leica. It was the worlds first successful 35mm
camera. 1936- kodachrome 35mm colour transparancy film
was introduced in the USA. It was a "spin off"
from colour film designed for movie cameras. 1942- Agfa and Kodacolor colour-negative films
were introduced, enabling low cost colour
prints for the first time. 1947- Dr. Edwin Land introduced the first polariod
Camera, producing instant peel-apart black and
white pictures 1949- The Contax S, made by the East german company
Zeiss, was the first 35mm SLR camera with a
pentaprism viewfinder. it ment that the image the
photographer saw was no longer reversed. 1972- Kodaks Compact 110 format
film was designed for amateur
pocket cameras.
Polariod launched the SX-70,
a newly designed camera that
took instant colour photos on
single sheets that no longer
needed peeling apart. 1976- The Canon AE-1
35mm camera was
the first to have a
built in micro-
processor. Incorp-
erating electronics
reduced the number
of camera parts by 300. 1981- The first photographs
of the earth taken by
the shuttle astronaults
were published. 1988- The introduction of digital
photography. The first electronic
scanners and cameras were launched. 1990- the first photographs
taken by the hubble
space telescope were
released. 1992- Kodak launched
PhotoCD. The
first format for
storing photos on
CD-Roms 1996- Advanced Photo System
(APS) was launched using
24mm film instead of 35mm.
It was the first major new film
format in over a decade.
The first consumer digital
cameras became widely
available. 2000- Sharp released the first
mobile phone with a
built in digital camera. 2009- Nintendo launch Ds
Console with built in
camera. Apple release
the 5th generation of
the iPod Nano with a
built in camera. Characteristics of Photography.
The Characteristic is the distinguishing feature or quality of photography. There are many aspects and techniques in photography and it is a wide subject, but some main qualities consistent throughout the Discipline include the composition, subject and the message we receive from the image. However, the main features on a camera vary from the quality of a photograph, whereas the image itself can be improved dependant on the equipment used, a good photograph cannot be produced using a top of the range camera, if that camera is in the wrong hands. I think one of the main characteristics of photography is the composition. The image can be improved immensely dependant on the composition for example the rule of thirds; the basic principle behind this rule is that you break the frame down into thirds both vertically and horizontally to make 9 equal sections. The theory is that you place the subject or point of interest on an intersection or lines so that the image isn’t central making it more interesting. A main characteristic of a good photograph is also the lighting. The lighting and colour in a photograph could change an image from a good shot to a breathtaking one. A natural scene that captures this element of a good photograph is of sunrise and sunset. However unique lighting could be created by a photographer with the right knowledge of camera lighting, flash and more. Another key characteristic of a photograph is the perspective. Using a unique or different perspective can make an ordinary picture seem different. Instead of showing an image from an adults everyday view get down and shoot the picture from a child’s perspective or from underneath the subject. A way of capturing this image is by remembering that backgrounds can be above or below you, not just behind the subject from your usual perspective. Other characteristics that help make great photographs include the emotion conveyed in the image, the story behind the photo, a picture that only shows some of the story; leaving parts up to the viewers imagination and capturing unique moments that are gone within seconds. Having an open mind and unique outlook on life are also essential characteristics of photographs which could essentially be the one thing that makes your image stand out from others. Example of the Rule of Thirds The Image is made more interesting through the natural lighting at sunset. This image is taken from underneath.
The background is above. Key Individuals in Photography

1. Johann Heinrich Schulze- Discovers the basic chemical principle of photography.
2. Joseph Nicephore Niepce- Takes the worlds first surviving photograph.
3. Louis-Jaques-Mande Daguerre- Inventor of the Daguerretype.
4. William Henry Fox Talbot- Creates the worlds first surviving photographic negative.
5. Sir David Brewster- Perfects the stereoscopic viewer.
6. Frederick Scott Archer- Introduces the collodion on glass (wet-plate) system.
7. Sir James Clerk Maxwell- Demonstrated the first process of colour photography.
8. Sir Joseph Wilson Swan- Introduces the carbon print process and the woodburytype.
9. Walter Bentley Woodbury- Invents the woodburytype.
10. Dr. Richard Leach Maddox- Invents the dry-plate system.
11. Eadweard Muybridge- Studies animals in motion, showing the way the horse moves in full
12. George Eastman- Introduces the first flexible film and the first Kodak.
13. Thomas Edison- Invents the 35mm film.
14. Christian Schad- Makes the first cameraless images.
15. Edwin Land- Invents the polaroid camera.
16. Charles and Vincent Chevalier- Inventors of the sliding box camera. Major Developments and the cause for change.
There have been many developments that have had a major impact on the photographic industry. Although the basic elements of the camera and photographic process have been known for hundreds of years, inventors were never able to make an image permanent.
The first major development took place in 1826, when Joseph Nicephore Niepce took the world’s first permanent photograph, opening up many new possibilities of new professions and ways of recording events.
The next revolutionary development that took place in the photographic trade was the development of the camera, making them portable, establishing the opportunity of professional photography and having it more accessible.
Another major development was the discovery and development of colour photography. In 1861 James Clerk-Maxwell demonstrated the first colour image produced, using red, green and blue filters. This discovery leads to experiments in developing the colour into more detail and depth.
The latest ground-breaking discovery was the digital age. This breakthrough allowed a wider range of the population to take instant photographs produced within seconds. When the first digital cameras came out in 1988, the whole concept of photography as a hobby and social side of photography opened up. People could now perfect pictures and see them straight away, they were easily uploaded and edited on computers, and the possibility of professional photography became more obtainable for everyone.
All these changes occurred due to the rising knowledge and expertise within inventors, once the basis to photography was discovered, scientists had more possible theories. After the first breakthrough in to a new era when Niepce took the first photograph, the question was no longer how to do it, but how to improve this new medium, and this focus allowed more detailed experiments and theories of how to make it easier and more accessible. These developments in technology had massive impact on the photographic field; it has provided infinite possibilities and a greater diversity in the colours and detail of every photograph. Digital technology has also allowed photographs to be taken in seconds and made it easier to print fast and good quality pictures without having to develop the images in a dark room.
Timothy O’Sullivan was a Civil War and landscape photographer in the 19th century. He was known for taking a wide range of pictures in subject and direct in message showing the horrors of war. When the war finished, 4 years into his career, O’Sullivan went on to do landscape photography in a variety of places due to the dullness of commercial studio work.
Some of his most famous work includes Harvest of death and dead boy at Fredericksburg. O’Sullivans work from the civil war mainly consists of the remains and corpses of soldiers, his work is known for the brutally honest photographs of the horrors of war. After the war his work ranged across America’s landscapes and strange, inhospitable regions. Soon after he documented the tribes of Canyon De Chelle in New Mexico, some of his more known works from this period include Ancient Ruins of New Mexico and five generations on Smiths plantation
Whilst on his journeys, documenting America, Timothy O’Sullivan brought with him 9X2 inch and stereograph cameras, 125 glass plates, dark room equipment and chemicals. He was known for his professionalism in producing negatives in the face of all obstacles.
The subject matter he focused on was a new concept, he focused on taking photographs of nature as an un-tamed and un-industrialized land. He combined science and art to make records of extraordinary beauty.
Timothy O’Sullivan was a “remarkable photographer” and “is widely recognised as an influential figure in the development of photography”. All of O’Sullivans work is very reaction provoking due to the bluntness of his message in the photographs of the Civil war.
Harvest of Death (4th July 1863) Dead boy at Fredericksburg (December 1862) Five generations on Smith's plantation Ancient ruins in the Canyon de Chelle,
New Mexico, 1873 A key photographer of the 20th century was Alfred Eisenstaedt, a world famous photographer and photojournalist. The German-American photographer is renowned for his “candid photographs”, his best known photograph being V-J Day, capturing the celebrations in Times Square on August 14th 1945.
Using his various models of the 35mm Leica Rangefinder Camera, Eisenstaedt worked for Life magazine; his photos captured celebrations, news and events. A selection of his extensive portfolio includes a picture of Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini in Italy, among many images of well known figures of the early to mid 20th century.
Some of Eisenstaedt’s photographs are spontaneously taken; dependant on the occasion; as a photojournalist, these images are not planned, but natural. But on certain events the subject has been arranged and most of his work consists of people and portraits. His images are made without any artificial lighting and the subject is always clear and in main focus.
Some of his more Iconic photographs consist of Winston Churchill giving the victory sign, A mother and child in the ruins of Hiroshima Japan, 1946, Albert Einstein and Marilyn Monroe.

I like his photographs because of how natural and unforced it looks and all his subjects are at ease. The images tell a story. “Eisie understood that it was possible to work unobtrusively, recording people as they really are.” And a significant talent of his was “his curiosity, the curiosity of a child, he never stopped being amazed and delighted by the people around him”.
V-J Day in Times Square, 1945 Marilyn Monroe, 1953 Albert Einstein, 1947 Mother and Child, Hiroshima Japan, 1946 Winston Churchill, 1951 Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini, 1934 Glossary

-Auto-Focus- When the camera or lens automatically focuses on the image.
-Aperture-The hole that controls how much light passes through the lens.
-Calotype-The first negative/positive process.
-Camera Angles-Various positions of the camera, giving a different viewpoint or perspective.
-Collodion-Chemicals used to bind light sensitive silver halides to wet glass plates.
-Contrast- The range of difference between the light and dark areas of a photograph.
-Camera Obscura-An optical devise that projects an image from the surroundings on to a screen.
-Composition-The combining of elements to form a whole. How an image is put together.
-Daguerretype-An image created on a light sensitive sheet.
-Darkroom- A light-limited area used for processing films.
-Depth Of Field-The distance between the nearest and furthest point from the camera in which the lens focuses on.
-Dry-Plate-Gelatin coated photographic plate.
-Exposure- The amount of light allowed in the camera, controlled by the lens.
-Filter-Transparent lens that modifies light passing through it.
-Film- A photographic emulsion coated on a flexible base that records images.
-F Numbers-A system for indicating aperture. The lower the f number the wider the aperture.
-Flash- Artificial light source on the camera.
-Focus- Gives a clear sharp and defined image of the subject.
-Frame- One individual picture on a roll of film.
-Format- The size of the photograph produced by the camera.
-Grain-Tiny particles of black metalic silver that are formed when the photo is developed.
-ISO-Used to indicate sensitivity settings on digital image sensors.
-Lens-A camera lens is made up of a number of lenses which can be adjusted to bring an image into sharp focus.
-Macro-Extreme close up photography.
-Manual- User selects both shutter speed and aperture.
-Negative-Produced by developing exposed film.
-Overexposure- When too much light reaches the film, producing a very light print.
-Pentaprism-Five-sided glass prism fitted to SLR cameras to show the view through the lens the right way up.
-Pinhole Camera-A simple camera that used a very small hole instead of a lens.
-Pixel-Abbreviation for "picture element" the smallest unit of colour and tone in a digital image.
-Polarizing Filter-Colourless filter that is able to absorb certain kinds of light.
-Panorama- A broad (wide) view.
-Perspective- How far the fore and background seem to be seperated, the camera-subject distance.
-Positive- An image with the same tones as the original subject.
-Rangefinder-The cameras focusing system that determines the distance between subject and camera.
-Red Eye-Effect where the flash makes the subjects eyes appear red instead of black.
-Resolution-The amount of detail in an image. Measured by Pixels per inch.
-Shutter- Mechanism that controls the time that light is allowed in the lens.
-SLR- A Single Lens Reflex, Image can be seen through viewfinder before photo is taken.
-Tripod- A three legged support used to hold the camera steady.
-Viewfinder-The device you look through when composing a photograph.
-Wide Angle Lens-A lens with a short focal length and a wide angle of view.
-Zoom Lens-A lens with a changable focal length that can be adjusted from wide angle to telephoto settings. Out of all Genres of photography I think the photojournalists face the biggest obstacles, this is because they are put in dangerous surroundings when trying to record a story, for example after the 9/11 bombings many photojournalists had to head to Pakistan and Tajikistan to find out what was happening between them and Afghanistan. This is only one example of the many problems photojournalists face. Not only are some parts of the countries photojournalists have to go to not safe for travellers and journalists, but the unknown customs and language barriers could cause friction between the photojournalist and the countries officials. That is without mentioning the problems involved trying to get accommodation or transportation. These people are the ones finding out what it is like in these places or events; they are going into the unknown. These kinds of risks that are taken have been going on for centuries since the beginning of the photography era. A well known 19th century photographer, Timothy O’Sullivan went along with soldiers to the front line during the civil war to record what is happening to report it back to the American citizens.
Another barrier that photographers face is money. Many Travel photographers need to find the money to be able to afford to go to many different countries in order to take their photographs. For some people, the money they get from their work is after they have been to these places and got the pictures they need and want. If that money comes afterwards, how do they pay for the travel and accommodation whilst they are abroad? And will it cover the costs of these journeys with profit?
These types of obstacles often stop the photographer from getting their essential images that is their main income. If photographers were restricted to still life, portrait and wedding photography, where is the originality and the fulfilment in that? If all the photographers did the same type of photography, then the industry would have to downsize significantly. The photographic industry is very competitive and to be able to get your work recognised within the community is hard, so if your creativeness has hit a wall or all photography is similar, the art of photography will be no more.
However much these physical barriers get in the way, the other types of barriers photographers have to face mentally could be just as problematic. Many artistic photographers hit barriers in their creativity that stop them being able to produce high quality or original pieces. These problems can have a spiralling effect on the amount of time they are in this place, when the high demand for new pieces hits photographers when they are in a creative block can prolong these barriers due to stress and high standards.
Many photographers have a technique they use that helps them overcome this creative stride, some of the more common ones include looking through old portfolios of past work that they did whilst at a creative high. Another technique used that may help you get back into a creative stride includes going back to places you visited frequently when you had ideas, which might put you back into a creative stride. An alternative way of getting you back into a creative mood is by listening to some of your favourite music, something that will make you smile and maybe some of the lyrics might inspire you and it will develop from there.
I think that the credit crunch has had little influence on photographers. Dependant on the genre of photography the photographer focuses on, it can have nothing or everything to do with the outcome of the work. For photographers that base their pieces on what is happening in the world, the credit crunch could have a big impact on photographs and the themes of projects. I think for some people the credit crunch and the effect it has on the economy could be inspiration for some artists, the credit crunch could inspire and develop artists creativeness as the whole issue of the credit crunch has such a big impact it will give many different viewpoints to different people. But for many people In the photographic industry, it will not have any effect on the creativeness of the photographers; although it may affect how themes are presented due to cost cuts and budgeting, it will not have a big impact on the creative side of photography.
The main negative effect the credit crunch has on creativity is that the lack of funding causes stress which can have a bad effect and even stop creativeness. But on the whole, photographers can make do with the resources they have available to them, so the credit crunch will not have a significant effect on photography but like all artists, inspiration is from all around them, so it may have a small contribution towards some art pieces.
Many say that photography is not an art form, but how can a broad industry all sum down to one main topic? Dependant on the photographic speciality, photography can indeed be considered an art, but who is to say that only a certain amount of creativity can be considered art? All photographers put in a significant amount of thought and planning into each photograph to make it the best it can possibly be and that thought and consideration amounts down to an art of capturing the perfect image.
Some say a photograph is just an aim and shoot process and anyone can do it, but if so, why is everyone not an amazing and talented photographer if it is so easy? Yes taking a photograph can be done by anyone but it takes talent and skill to create a reaction provoking image. Art is defined as the expression or application of creative skill and imagination. Art pieces are meant to have meaning, an untold story behind them, a little something that is left up to the imagination, if photography isn’t that then these images are just unthought-of and a spur-of-the-moment thing, which I would fail to believe.
Deceptively yours by Ariana Jordan By August Bradley Roberto Kusterle I think that a mundane object can be seen differently by artistic people. I don’t think that by putting an orange into a piece will change it, an orange is just an orange, but when seen incorporated in to an art piece, people try to see it in a different light.
I think all artists see ordinary, everyday objects like a child seeing it for the first time, with open eyes, seeing everything as a possibility but to other people the orange will be an orange. If you go to a gallery and see an art piece made of everyday objects, they may try to see it from a fresh point of view, they may like the piece as a whole-think it is creative, but I think each individual object making up this piece will still be seen as it is to other people every other day. I think ordinary objects that have been used in something extraordinary will be viewed different because it is in different circumstances, but to actually make each of the individual objects of this extraordinary piece seem interesting and different would be a very difficult accomplishment.
When viewers would see this mundane object back in its “usual” environment, I do not think that they would think of it any differently afterwards. I once saw a piece in a gallery that was made up of sledges and an old rusty car, although the artist has tried to convey this into an interesting, different piece, I still just saw an rusty old car in a room. Therefore I think that seeing a mundane object in an art form would only change the object dependant on the viewers, but will not change how you look at this ordinary object from then on, but only whilst in the place.
I think that leaving what the public get to see of art work in just one person’s hands is wrong. Everybody has different tastes in art, whereas one person may see an image as amazing and an excellent artwork, someone else may think that it is not art at all. Art is a very opinionated subject and is seen different by everyone. I think that there should be more diversity in the pieces of a gallery so there is something for everyone. Each gallery should have a mixture of art from all the branches of art. I think that a sculpture should sit next to a painting and a painting next to a photograph. Curators get total control over what is classified as “art” when everyone’s view is different. The views of new people to the art community can be influenced too much by what is seen in galleries. Someone may go to one gallery for the first time, and not like what they see at all, their opinion is then formed under false pretences. They may then think that all art is similar to the works they see and never get to really see the value and significance of art- an art they may grow to like. I also think that the curators have such a limited collection of work in such a small amount of areas that they are interested in, that it influences people’s opinions of art and what is classified as art. I think that the value of art has decreased due to the fact that it has become a fashion, something everyone wants or is. Anyone can call themselves an artist, because of the development of abstract art, someone could just paint a line and call it art, much of contemporary art’s standards of what a true piece of “art” has dwindled significantly.
I think that the” importance” of art in the majority of the population has increased, as it has become a craze to own and appreciate art. But this idea of art being important as a fashion accessory has decreased its worth and exclusiveness. Because art has become a wider “talent” and industry it is easier to come across pieces and because of the broad quantity of art, its value has changed. Although the true value of a good art piece (dependant on the viewer) has not changed as such; its popularity has somehow decreased its meaning and appreciation.
I think that art has become a fashion and commodity. Due to the vast amount of art available to us and its rising diversity art is no longer elite and exclusive. It has become a popular craze and trend to own art pieces and to have “exclusive” art-styled homes and lives that has made true art’s value and significance decrease. Because magazines and curators now tell the community what is classed as art and what isn’t, these high standards for real “art” pieces have dropped considerably. Ariana Jordan is a creative photographer based in Tennessee and Kentucky. She specializes in weddings, modelling portfolio's, families engagements and couples.
I Chose her work because her images are different and interesting, some of the wedding photographs she has taken are unique and original. Tony Howell is an English landscape photographer based
in Somerset his images are used in books, magazines and
calenders and neumerous postcards.
I chose his work because the images of the countryside that
he takes are scenic and colourful. Mike Mcfarlane is a landscape photographer
that has travelled Britain to capture scenic
images of the countryside.
I chose Mcfarlanes work because his images are
carfully composed and capture the vivid lights of
sunset. I like a range of his work, especially images
capturing the sea and waves. Will Pearsons is a panoramic photographer living
in london and that works worldwide. His pieces
have been exhibited in various places in both England
and China.
I chose this photographer because i liked all of his work
and the images are colourful, original and breathtaking. Brad Templeton is a hobbie photographer that has
taken panoramic photographs all over the world.
I chose him because the shots are distinctive and
remarkable. Gavin Gough is a freelance
travel photographer that is
based in Bangkok. He creates
stock photography for Getty
and Lonely Planet images.
His Images have been featured
in many publications such as
National Geographic, Vanity Fair
and Vogue. Hallie Elizabeth Scott is a freelance photographer based in California. Her Work Mainly consists of animals and macro photography.
I chose her work because she can take a wide range of photography and it is all great work, no matter how familiar with the genre she is. This piece is called Emmett #3 and is a portrait of Mann's son photographed in 2004. This piece is part of a set of close up photographs of his three children Called What Remains, a group of photographs taken between 2000 and 2004. The images are close ups of the faces using long exposure times. This image is a Silver Gelatin Print with Varnish and is 137x109cm big. This piece is called "Murcuric River" Taken by Mann in 1996. Her influence for this collection called "Deep South" were the landscapes steeped in historical significance of the American Civil War. She wanted to examine both the literal and metaphorical scars left behind by these previous events on the trees and land. Her use of antique cameras and the wet plate collodion process echo's the equiptment and technique used by photographers on the battlefields of the Civil War. The subject of the piece is of the river running through a forest. This piece is made of a silver gelatin print and is 117x147cm in size. The similarities of these pieces are based more on materials and methods used rather than the subject or artists intentions. The photographs have been taken using the same methods and both images are in black and white. However the subjects of each piece are very different as one is of nature and landscape, while the other is of people. i prefer the image of the landscape and river because the subject looks better composed and meaningful, whereas the image of her son close up seems pointless and without any specific intention or meaning. Rinko Kawauchi Stephen Gill Outside In.
Going around Brighton, Stephen Gill Picked up things like dirt off the floor and
dropped it into his camera. He found things such as seaweed, local plant life and fishtails that are found near where his photographs are taken. The composition of these objects are totally random and creates both a harminous and conflicted composition.

I Chose this piece because i think that the unusual and unstructured composition creates a unique outcome and interesting imagery. The photograph taken behind the objects are quite poor and lacking in structure, but with the focus being on the objects overlaying that make the image abstract the nessesity of good composure is lessened. Murmuration
The focus of Kawauchi's photographs are of the starlings flocking at Brighton Pier. The birds are swirling around causing a memerizing cloud called a murmuration. Continuing with the theme of flock she also followed people around the town recording their movements.

I chose these images because of the detail the photographer has captured of the birds and it shows the swirl formation it has created. I chose the image because as a ladscape shot she captures all of the formation and the surrounding area that includes interesting elements and a symmetrical composition.
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