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Cold War Begins

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KYLE GERALDS

on 26 January 2015

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Transcript of Cold War Begins

The Cold War Begins
1945-1953
Democrat
Became President when FDR died
Ended WWII
Tried to bully Stalin and Cold War
Took US into the Korean War
Said US will help any country fight communism
Harry Truman
1953-1962
Republican
THE WWII General of Europe
Pulled out of Korea
Build lots of nukes
Used CIA instead of army
Overthrew Iran and Guatemala
Dwight D Eisenhower (Ike)
1961-1963
Democrat
Assassinated
Wanted man on moon
Bay of Pigs & Cuban Missile crisis
Challenged Mafia, the Fed and CIA
John F Kennedy
1963-1969
Democrat
Took country to all out war in Vietnam
Passed major social programs: Medicare, Education, War on Poverty and the Civil Rights Act
Lyndon B Johnson
1969-1974
Resigned before a possible impeachment
For stealing information from the Democrats
Ended gold standard (hard money)
Richard Nixon
1974-1977
Took over for Nixon
Only non-elected president
UofM football player
Bad economy
Gerald R Ford
1977-1981
Democrat
Returned canal control to Panama
Iran overthrows the Shah and takes US hostages
Jimmy Carter
1981-1989
Republican
Actor and Governor of California
Arms race vs USSR
Iran-Contra Affair
Ronald Reagan
1989-1993
Oil Man and CIA Director
Reagan’s VP
USSR Collapses
Invades Panama
1st Gulf War
George H W Bush
USSR
Capitalist Country
Private property and private businesses
Christian Country
(Add “under god” to pledge)
Spread capitalism to expand economic empire
USA
Two Empires Collide
Communist Country
No private property-all public
Government handles all major resources/industry
Atheist Country
Spread communism to expand economic empire
Satellite States – countries that seem independent but are under another countries control
USSR had many satellites in East Europe
USA had Japan and South Korea as satellites
Iron Curtain – The name for the line dividing capitalist Europe and Communist Europe
USSR Controls East Europe
Germany split in half by US and USSR
Berlin also split (but in USSR half)
Two empires fight for control of all Germany
Large armies
Many East Germans ran to West Germany
Built Berlin wall (136 killed trying to cross)
Currency (money) war – US won
Germany & Berlin
Berlin Air Lift
US Banks (IMF and World Bank) loan billions to battered Europe
USSR fears US economic control
US gains major economic influence in West Europe
Marshall Plan
Truman Doctrine
Greece
Turkey
NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization
WARSAW PACT – USSR and satellite countries
Alliances Form
USSR tests 1st Nuclear Bomb
Nuclear apocalypse now a legitimate fear
MAD
Mutually Assured Destruction
If one country uses nukes the other will
Destroying the earth
So no one is willing to use the nukes
The Two Shocks of 1949
Chinese Communist Revolution
Hyperinflation ruins China
Mao and the communists rise to victory
Loser nationalists flea to Taiwan (still today)
Eisenhower defends Taiwan with threat nukes
US loses a major trade partner – Soviets gain a BIG one
The Two Shocks of 1949
As USSR and US secretly fight for economic control of many countries…
Truman declares US will give weapons/money and even soldiers to countries fighting against communists
Official Reason: Containment
Stop the spread of communism across planet
Domino Theory: if one countries falls into communism-many will fall
Soviets cut off US road access to Berlin
US supplies Berlin with everything by Airplane for 11 months
War avoided – things cool a bit
Germany does not reunify until 1990
Greece Civil War
US supports Kingdom of Greece
USSR supports Communist Democratic Army of Greece
158,000 people die
1 million put in camps
War end when Communist Yugoslavian Tito stopped supporting the Greek Communists
Cutting of ties with USSR
Wanted by USSR for access to Mediterranean sea and trade
USA supports with money
Turkey joins capitalist (USA) side
Later the US will put nukes in Turkey and point them at USSR…
KOREA
USSR & US in Korea to disarm Jap end of WWII
USSR & US stayed and set up 2 gov’ts
USSR’s North Korea invaded South Korea
TRUMAN called UN to act – sent troops to support S KOREA
Korean War
No declaration of war
Constitution: Congress has to declare war
BUT this is a United Nations war not a US war
Despite: Mostly US Generals, soldiers, money
Power to declare war no longer in the people (congress) but in the president
Presidents can now take US into war whenever they want using the UN
Korean War
US & UN drive through N Korea easy
Chinese support N and ROLL the US back
k
Korean War
Lost 30,000 soldiers
Nasty Civil War with Death Squads
1/2 million Korean soldiers die
2.5 million civilians die
US will build massive army
SEATO – SE Asian alliance
Korean War
MacArthur wants to attack China
Argues w/Truman
Wants to use Nukes
Is fired
Stale mate
Korean War
FEAR OF COMMUNISTS INFILTRATING AMERICAN SOCIETY
To weaken and overthrow gov’t
Loyalty review
Truman had 6 mil employees screened for LOYALTY by FBI
14,000 criticized / 2,000 quit / 212 fired
RED SCARE
J Edgar Hoover - FBI
House of Un-American Activities
Attacked Hollywood
Could use film for communist influence
Many plead the fifth – chose not to respond
Black listed – could not get work
HUAC
Accused as Communist Spies
Executed – chair
Only executions – Julius minor spy
Rosenbergs (Julius and Ethel)
Colleges screened teachers
Priests called upon people to rat
Big Unions fired Communists
RED SCARE SPREADS
Joe McCarthy used the red scare to promote himself
Claimed to have list 205 members of gov’t that are communists
Never showed it
100’s jailed
10-12 thousand lost jobs
McCarthyism
He bullied
People got sick of him
Congress censured (disciplined) him
McCarthyism
The US Gov’t and people are paranoid and terrified
Bomb shelters
Duck and Cover
Eisenhower’s Cold War
IKE planned D-DAY
HERO
IKE wins landslide
1952 Election
Big Army too expensive
NUKES – more BANG for your BUCK
Wars (Korea) too exp. Unpopular
No war
Threaten with MASSIVE RETALIATION (NUKES)
POLICY
Cut f/$50 Bil to $34 Bil
ADD 1,000 NUKES to 18,000
Subs, Bombers, ICBMs
Brinksmanship = close to nuclear war
Military
Threatened NUKES
Armistice
Demilitarized Zone DMZ
US still there
No peace treaty
Korea Ends
China moves to retake Taiwan
IKE steps in and defends with Navy and threatens Nukes
China backs off
Taiwan
Suez Canal
Egypt seized Eng. and Fra. Controlled Suez Canal
They fought back – brink of war
US interjected – currency threat to ENG
If England did not give it up US would demand Eng pay all debts immediately (instant depression)
War ended / Soviets gain influence in Mid East
Suez Canal
SPUTNIK
ICBM tech.
Visible f/sky
Terrified Americans
Created NASA
Space Race
1st Satellite
Central Intelligence Agency CIA
Many developing Gov’ts blamed European Empires for poverty – leaned towards Soviets for support
CIA would SECRETLY Overthrow anti-American governments
Covert Ops
USSR tried to take over North Iran and oil
US scared them out with Navy
Fairly Elected Iran Prime Minister Mossadegh took over outside oil companies
Kicking out Anglo-Iranian Oil Company
Now known as BP British Patroleum
The SHAH – pro American leader tried to oust Mossadegh but was exiled (kicked out)
Iran
CIA sends in Kermit Roosevelt Jr. (TR’s grandson) into Iran with several million dollars
Bribes generals, reporters, key businesses men, unions and government workers to rebel
Creates riots and overthrows the gov’t
Iran - Operation Ajax
US puts former Nazi’s in charge of Iran
General Fazlollah Zahedi given $5 million for coup and made Prime Minister
US then shifts democratic gov’t to Monarchy and puts in The Shah (king) Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
Will run a ruthless gov’t with secret police force SAVAK
Western oil companies and contractors win out
(A very anti-US gov’t revolution with happen in the 1970’s to overthrow a Shah)
Iran - Operation Ajax
IRAN
GUATEMALA
President Jacobo Arbenz
Nationalized companies
Inc. United Fruit Comp
US declares Arbenz a communist (he was not)
US CIA armed and trained guerilla opposition in Nicaragua
Invaded Country
Started a Civil War that will not end until 1996
140,000-250,000 dead
Guatemala
Warns of MILITARY INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX
Military contractors can control the gov’t
“We (the government and people) must guard against the unwarranted influence by the military-industrial complex. The potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist… we must never let it threaten our liberties and democratic processes… we spend annually on military security more than the net income of all United States corporations.”
Eisenhower's Farwell Address
Permanent Weapons Industry for national defense
The strong connection between
1) Congress
2) The military (pentagon)
3) Military contractors (corporations/banks)
Revolving door
Leads to:
Insane military spending
Extended and unnecessary wars
Military Industrial Complex
Military Spending
Dick Cheney served as the Secretary of Defense for George Bush, then worked four years as the CEO for defense contractor and oilfield service corporation HALLIBURTON. Cheney became Vice President under George W. Bush who began the Iraq and Afghanistan War. Halliburton became a top military contractor and gross billions of dollars per year.
Revolving Door – Dick Cheney
Afghanistan (13 years 3 months: 2001 - Today)
Iraq War (8 years 8 months: 2003-2011)
25,000 soldiers remain and we are bombing ISIS
Vietnam (19 years 5 months 1955-1975)
Heavy combat 8 years 4 months
Since Eisenhower’s speech the United States entered her three longest wars
General Electric (top 20 contractors)
Owns NBC (news and media)
A military contractor owns a major news source
Only 2.3% of GE’s profits went to gov’t in taxes
Over the last decade
Connections
WHY WE FIGHT
99 minutes
http://www.history.com/speeches/jackie-robinson-appears-before-huac#jackie-robinson-appears-before-huac
Full transcript