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Project1

Project1 Jan
by

asia hamza

on 20 May 2013

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Transcript of Project1


1.1 Overview:
This project is the final graduation project submitted to the Civil Engineering Department in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of B.Sc. in Civil engineering at AL-Najah National University.
The project is rawabi residential building in Ramallah with an overall area = 3032.25 m^2 distributed over existing 7 stories of which 1 is basement.
The design of the structure is according to the requirements of safety and strength. This involves identifying the loads which act upon the structure and the forces and stresses which arise within the structure due to different loads, and then designing the structure to successfully support and resist those loads. The loads are the self weight of the structure, dead load, live loads, and earthquake load. The structural engineer must design structures to be safe for their users and to successfully fulfill the function they are designed for. Design considerations include strength, stiffness, and stability of the structure when subjected to loads which may be static, such as furniture or self-weight, or dynamic, such as wind or seismic. Other considerations such as constructability, safety, aesthetics and sustainability are taken into consideration when selecting and choosing the type and system of construction.
1.4Scope:
In this stage of project, the main outcomes will be full design of all structural elements in the building, and a suitable distribution and design for shear walls, also, a full detailing for all elements are done by using AUTOCAD program. Beam depth should not exceed the false ceiling; distribution of shear walls should satisfy the requirement of codes for earthquake forces.
Usually most of the rewarded project are designed globally missing some local issues that have to be checked if to be applied locally.
Therefore the first objective of this project is to check if the final design of the project has been done according to the local requirements.
The second scope can be summerised as economical optimization analysis by checking the optimal number floors.
1.3Importance:
The importance of rawabi project: - rawabi is one of the important buildings in the nation in all parts of Palestine. Rawabi is a new city for Palestinian families it will provide opportunities for affordable home owner ship, employment, education and leisure and an attractive environment in which to live ,work and visit .best of all rawabi is the best quality of life option well within the financial reach of many young Palestinian families . Chapter One
Introduction
1.2 Objectives:
In this project we work to apply all concepts of structural Engineering that we are learned over five years. We have studied many courses in the program of the Civil Engineering Department at Al-Najah University. Different types of analysis and design are done in this project in order to choose the most safe and economical type and method for the design. This project provides us with the opportunity to apply our knowledge and gain in order to provide a safe structural design which is also the most economical. Also, to use available programs for analysis and design. Structural systems
Groups of the superstructure systems according to the load transferring principals:
Form – active structures (transfer of loads in single stress, compression or Tension)
Vector – active structures (transfer of loads in one dimension tension and compression)
Section – active structures
Surface – active structures (transfer of loads through surfaces)
Height – active structures (high – rise structures) Section – active structures:-

* Structure system of solid linear element the redirection of forces is effected through sections.
* Members are subjected to bending and torsion (compression, Tension, Shear).
*Beam system.
*Frame Structure.
*Beam Grid System.
*Slab System.
Structural Classification systems:-

1. Typological By Geometry.
2. Typological By Stiffness.
3. Typological By Span Type.
4. Typological By Material.
5. Typological By Load Carrying Action. 1. Typological By Geometry:- Typological By Stiffness.
Rigid.
Flexible.
3. Typological By Span Type
One way.
2-Ways.
Short Span.
Wide Span. 4. Typological By Material
# Masonry (quarried Stone, Formed stone, Formed Brick, Concrete masonry Unit).
# Wood (Light wood, Heavy Timber).
# Concrete (cast-in-Place, Precast, Pre-stressed).
# Steel (hot steel, Cold steel).
# Composite. The structural system for this project is taken as typological

** By span type "2-Way".
**By material "concrete cast in situ". Chapter Two
Site , material , loads And program used
2.1 The site, the design and as built-plans:-
Description of rawabi project:- rawabi is one of the biggest residential building in Palestine , which is constructing in Ramallah city , it has been started in 2007. Rawbi building consists of seven stories of total area (3032.25 m^2),the total height of the building (19..8m).
2.3 Location:-

** Geographic location:- rawabi project locate on a hill far 25 minutes from Ramallah .
** Soil site:- This structure was built over rock soil, estimated depending on the nature of the region, and field tests from the adjacent sites.
2.3Architecture and structural plans:-
The architectural and structural plans provided are given in
2.4 Architectural Changes:-
Number of floors has been increased by one floor, two floors, three floors and four floors(for the scope of economical optimization).
2.5 Materials of construction:-
Structural materials used locally can be classified into two categories; steel and reinforced concrete. Each type is suitable for certain types of buildings.
In this project reinforced concrete is used, this choice is built on several reasons; first of all that concrete has less cost than steel locally , second is the availability of this material in Palestine so there is no need to import it from other countries like steel.
2.5.1Concrete:-
Concrete normal weight c =2450 kg/m^3.
Concrete compressive strength fc=28 MPa (32 MPa for foundations)
Concrete modulus of elasticity EC=4700√28=24870 MPa (ACI318-08)
The rest of the materials are assumed to have the following properties:
*Density of tiles is 26 KN⁄m^3 .
*Density of stone is 26 KN⁄m^3 .
*Density of un-reinforced concrete is 25 t⁄m^3 .
*Density of sand is 20⁄m^3 .
*Density of block is 12 KN⁄m^3 .
Steel Reinforcement:-
The deformed bars are the type of the bars that were used in this project. Local markets of building materials provide deformed bars with a 12 m length.
Yield stress of reinforcement f_y=28 MPa Steel modulus of elasticity E_c=200,000 MPa.
2.6Loads:-
A "load" is any type of force exerted on an object. Defining the load is the first stage of the design of the structure. They are a basic input element in analyzing the structural elements. Properties and action duration and nature of the loads are components that categorize the loads physical state. Loads are mainly categorized into Gravity loads and Environmental loads 2.6.1 Gravity Loads
They are mainly consisting of the types of the loads that affect downward, live load and dead load. 2.6.1.1Dead Load
Dead loads are gravity loads that act vertically downward due the weight of elements. Their effect remains as long as the structure is alive that is no change in the quantities unless the structure has been changed, as adding or removing any structural element or any permanent building elements as floors or roof covers, false ceiling, mechanical and electrical installations, and masonry elements. They are mainly composed from the elements self weight even it is a beam or a column, wall, slab rib, stairs, including the weights of concrete, reinforcements, tiles and its plaster, sand fill, and hollow blocks in the ribs.
All sizes of the structural elements will be checked out to make sure that the structure can be loaded with the estimated dead loads.
2.6.1.2 Live Loads
Live loads are that portion of the loads which is variable, and consists of the weight of people, furniture, stocks of goods, machinery, etc. The amount of this load, which should be added to the dead load, depends on the use of the building.
Live load used in this project for typical floor is 3 KN⁄m^2 which is recommended for commercial building. While for basement floors is 5 KN⁄m^2 . 6.2 Environmental Loads
Environmental loads are those loads that affect the structure because of an environmental action such as earthquakes, wind, rain and snow. Weight of the structure, the nature of geometry of the building and the structure stiffness, affects the magnitude of the environmental loads.

2.6.2.1Earthquake Loads
Every building shall be designed and constructed to resist the effect of earthquake ground motion. The horizontal component of the earthquake action is the most significant force. Earthquake loads analysis is affected not only with the nature of the building location, but also with the whole mass and with stiffness of the structure.
For this project UBC 1997 will be used to analyze and determine the earthquake loads, which will be resisted by shear wall.
2.6.2.2 Snow Loads
Loads resulting from the accumulation of snow on the roof of the building vary widely according to the geographical location (climate) and height above the Mean Sea Level (MSL). Snow loads are computed according to the Jordanian code for snow loads.
Using the formula:
S=(h/(4 ))-100

Where:
S: snow load (Kg⁄(m^2)).
h: height above MSL which is known for Ramallah =850 m (Jordanian Code).

The snow load for this project equals 112.5 Kg⁄m^2 .

2.6.3 Load Combination
There are many combinations that are used in determining the factored loads adopted in the (ACI318M-08); the formulas used in this project are:
U=1.2D+1.6L
U=1.2D+1.6L+0.5S
U=0.9D+1.6W+1.6H
Where
D: dead load.
L: live load
S: snow load
H: pressure soil
2.7 Codes:-
2.7.1ACI 318M-08
ACI 318M-08 was adopted as a standard of the American Concrete Institute. This code is used in the design of the structural elements (slabs, beams, columns, foundation and shear walls) at AN-Najah University; it is a main design reference in several important courses like reinforced concrete design.
2.8.2SAP2000 Program

SAP2000 is a structural analysis. This program is used mainly for analysis, since most of the elements are statically indeterminate in order to get the envelope diagrams and actual maximum deflections. It is also used for the design of several elements.
2.8.3ETAB Program

ETAB is a structural analysis program by Computers and Structures. This program is used to make a 3-D analysis model for some parts of the building to determine the different types of loads and stresses.
2.8 Computer Software
Useful programs are to be used in order to mix the engineering theories used in analysis and design with the computer technological programs, which are built on the engineering principles.
2.8.1AutoCAD Program

This program will be used for drawing, detailing and elevations. AutoCAD allows modification of details obtained from other programs.
2.8.4 C++ Program

A simple program has been written to be used in conceptual design decision 2.9 Design process 2.9.1 Model Structural systems
Groups of the superstructure systems according to the load transferring principals:
Form – active structures (transfer of loads in single stress, compression or Tension)
Vector – active structures (transfer of loads in one dimension tension and compression)
Section – active structures
Surface – active structures (transfer of loads through surfaces)
Height – active structures (high – rise structures)
Section – active structures:-
Beam system.
Frame Structure.
2.9.1.3 Identification of slabs:-
By Hand.
SAP 2D.
SAP 3D. 2.9.1.1 Location of columns. 2.9.1.2Location of beams 2.9.3 Design :-
next step for project 2 . 2.9.2 Analysis:
Analysis has been completed static and dynamic analysis. Chapter Three
Slabs
3.1Introduction:
Structural concrete slabs are constructed to provide flat surfaces, usually horizontal, in building floors, roofs, bridges, and other types of structures. The slab may be supported by walls, by reinforced concrete beams usually cast monolithically with the slab, by structural steel beams, by columns, or by the ground. The depth of the slab is usually very small compared to its Span.
The slabs of this project are divided into panels with one way structural systems and maximum values of moment and shear for each panel is taken as critical value and used in the design of panels.
3.2Types of Slabs:
The slab is classified in to two types depending on the dimensions of the slab and direction of loading:-
Two way slab
In this type the load is distributed in both directions and reinforcement will be in two directions; when the ratio of the length to the width is equal or less than 2 (L/B≤2).
Types of slabs depending on construction system :
Solid slabs.
Flat plates.
Ribbed slabs.
Waffle slabs One way slab
In this type, the load is assumed to be distributed in one direction i.e the behavior of the slab is in one direction and therefore the maximum reinforcement will be in that direction, this will occur when the ratio of the length of the panel to its width is equal or greater than 2 (L/B≥2). Two-way ribbed slab has been used in this project. Chapter four

Beams 4.1Introduction:-

A beam is a structural element that carries load primarily in bending (flexure). Beams generally carry vertical gravitational forces but can also be used to carry horizontal loads (i.e. loads due to an earthquake or wind). The loads carried by a beam are transferred to columns, walls, or girders, which then transfer the force to adjacent structural compression members. In Light frame construction the joists rest on the beam.
Beams are characterized by their profile (the shape of their cross-section), their length, and their material. In contemporary construction, beams are typically made of steel, reinforced concrete or wood. One of the most common types of steel beam is the I-beam or wide-flange beam. This is commonly used in steel-frame buildings and bridges. Other common beam profiles are the C-channel, the hollow structural section beam, the pipe, and the angle. Beams are classified into two types:- Hidden beams , with depth equal to the slab depth. Drop beams, with depth greater than the slab depth. Thanks for listening Drop beams is preferable to be used in buildings(from structural point of view) to resist gravity and seismic loads because of their stiffness (its moment of inertia is bigger than the hidden beams).
In this project, most of beams are designed to be hidden. False-ceiling will be used to cover the drop part of the beam.
In addition to complete preliminary design of block.1 that includes beams, two beams were selected to be solved manually and to check the correctness of SAP2000 of designing beams. Value of moment and shear will be taken from SAP but it will be manually designed

We use C++ program to determine the thickness of the beams ,and check if it is dropped or hidden . we are ready for any logical questions
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