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Computer Hardware Components

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Kimmie Tomlinson

on 8 April 2014

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Transcript of Computer Hardware Components

Computer Hardware Components
Explain the function of computer hardware components.

Central Processing Unit (CPU)
1.What is the purpose of a processor?
2.Explain the two main functions of the processor (CU and ALU)
3.What are the different types of processors? 4.What is their speed?
5.What other hardware components does the processor communicate with?

Central Processing Unit
The Central processing Unit is the hardware component of a computer which carries out instructions of a computer program using the basic arithmetical, logical, the and input/output operations of the computer’s operating system.

Control Unit & Arithmetic Logic Unit
The CU ( Control Unit) coordinates the components of the computer by getting all the codes of the instructions in the program and controls the flow of data through the processor.
It performs these tasks by retrieving the data, decoding it, managing execution and then storing results.
The ALU (arithmetic logic unit) performs the mathematical, logical and decision operations in a computer.
Also it is the final processing performed by the processor.
The ALU is also associated with the capability to access the memory.

Different Types of Processors.

Intel Pentium Dual Core Processors
The Intel Pentium processors with Intel dual-core technology deliver great desktop performance, low power enhancements, and multitasking for everyday computing.
Intel Dual Core i3 Processors
Intel Core i3 dual core processors provide 4-way multitasking capability with built-in performance headroom for software upgrades.
Intel Dual Core i5 Processors
Intel Core i5 processors deliver the next level of productivity. With Intel Turbo Boost Technology this quad-core processor with 4-way multitasking capability delivers extra speed whenever you need.
Intel Dual Core i7 Processors
The Intel Core i7 processors deliver best-in-class performance for the most demanding applications. This quad-core processor features 8-way multitasking capability and additional L3 cache.

What other hardware does the processor communicate with?

Random Access Memory
Power Supply
Removable Media Devices
Removable Media Devices
Internal Storage
Disk Array Controller
Solid-State Drive
What is the purpose of a motherboard? i.e. What does it do?
What is the motherboard made up of?
What can be connected to the motherboard?
What do the printed circuits on the motherboard do?
What are the different types of motherboards?

What is the purpose of the BIOS?
Where is the BIOS stored on a motherboard?
What checks does the BIOS perform on system start up?
Can the BIOS be updated?
What hardware components does the BIOS communicate with?

What is the purpose of BIOS?
The BIOS (basic input output system) provides the processor with the information required to boot the system from a non volatile storage unit (HDD, FDD, CF or other). It provides the system with the settings and resources that are available on the system.
What is the purpose of the 'Motherboard'?
The motherboard is the main board of the computer which contains all it necessary parts such as the CPU for example. It is also a printed circuit board that allows all other hardware components to function with each other.
What is the motherboard made up of?
What can be connected to the motherboard?
There is a wide variety of things that can be connected to the motherboard as it is the circuit board in a computer but examples of some of the things that can be connected to the motherboard are video slots, hardware, printer, keyboard, monitors etc..
What do the printed circuit on the motherboard do?
The Printed Circuit Board mechanically supports and electrically connects all the electric ocmponents using conductive tracks pads and other features etched from copper sheets laminated onto a non-conductive substrate.
What are the different types of motherboards?
XT Motherboards:
AT Motherboards
What are the different types of motherboards?
AXT Motherboards
Baby AT motherboard
What is the Motherboard?
The motherboard is the mainframe of the computer through which all other components cross communicate.
Where is the BIOS stored on a motherboard?
BIOS software is stored on a chip built into the system on the mother board.
What checks does the BIOS perform on system start up?
The BIOS performs a number of tasks when a computer is started. From initializing the microprocessor to initializing and testing hardware to starting the operating system. When you first turn on a computer the very first operation performed by the CPU is to read the address space at FFFF:0000h. This address space it reads from is only 16 bytes, which is not nearly enough space to house the BIOS found on a motherboard. Instead, this location contains a special instruction called a jump command (JMP) that tells the processor where to go to find and read the actual BIOS into memory. The process of the processor reading the jump instruction and redirection to the actual BIOS is called the bootstrap or boot. So, when you apply power, it's not the operating system that's working. It's the BIOS.

1.Check the CMOS Setup for custom settings
2.Load the interrupt handlers and device drivers
3.Initialize registers and power management
4.Perform the power-on self-test (POST)
5.Display system settings
6.Determine which devices are bootable
7.Initiate the bootstrap sequence

Can the BIOS be updated?
Most newer PCs have a fairly easy BIOS update procedure: Just download the .exe file from your PC manufacturer's Website, quit all open programs, run the .exe, and let it handle the patch; then reboot. If your PC suddenly shuts down in the middle of the BIOS update, you won't be able to boot up, so make sure you're not running off a laptop battery. Ideally, you're plugged into an uninterruptible power supply (UPS), especially if you're in an area prone to blackouts.

Older PCs, however, might require you to set up your own bootable disk to update the BIOS yourself. You might still be able to download an app that configures a USB thumb drive, blank CD/DVD, or even a floppy disk so that you can boot off of it to update the BIOS, or an ISO image file that can be used in your disc-burning app of choice (if you don't have such an app, try ISO Recorder for Windows XP or the version for Windows 7/Vista) to create a BIOS update CD.

Other systems will have you copy a few files to your bootable disk, restart, and open up the BIOS during startup (typically by pressing a specified key for setup options), and change the boot order so your system looks for a bootable USB drive or CD before loading the OS from your hard drive.

What hardware components does the BIOS communicate with?
It controls CPU access to monitor, keyboard and mouse.
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