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Waste Management

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by

Ms. Farrell

on 21 May 2014

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Transcript of Waste Management

Which Is Better?
Styrofoam
Or Paper?
Waste Generation and Management
Before WWII, virtually all material in the US was reused
If a bookcase broke it would become a stool
when the stool broke it would become a heat source
After WWII
Increased industrialization and wealth
Larger Families
people urged to buy "labor-saving" household appliances
Planned Obsolescence was born: designing a product that needs to be replaced in a few years
Municipal Solid Waste
Waste generation from households, small businesses, and institutions (schools, prisons, churches, etc)
MSW increased from 88 million tons in 1960 to 255 million tons in 2008. Calculate the percent change of MSW
Does not include: agricultural waste, mining waste, or industrial waste
Composition of MWS
E-Waste
Electronic Waste
small % of MSW, significant consequences
Older "cathode-ray" TV & Comp
Contain 2.2-4.4 lbs of heavy metal
also mercury and cadmium
costs more to recycle a computer than to throw it out
http://www.cbsnews.com/video/watch/?id=4586903n
Where does the recycled E-waste go?....
Cutting back on Waste
REDUCE-REUSE-RECYCLE
Reuse
Reduce
Recycle
Source Reduction: reduce in the early stages of design and manufacturing
Fewer inputs means fewer outputs
Increase residence time of an object
Energy may still be needed to keep item
reusing Styrofoam cup:
water, soap, heat needed to clean it
Throw-away-society still has remnants of "reuse society"
flea markets, ebay, craigslist, ect
Closed-loop vs Open loop
Closed: recycling a product into the same product
Open: Recycling a product into a new product
Over past 25 years, recycling has been on the rise
It does require more energy than reduce & reuse
Composting
The Fourth "R"
In landfill, anaerobic
causes organic material to produce Methane
Composting: treatment of organic waste under controlled conditions to produce an organic-rich material that enhances soil structure
Landfills
Is recycling always good for the environment?
Sanitary Landfills: engineered ground facilities designed to hold MSW with as little contamination of the surrounding environment as possible
Clay and/or plastic lining on the bottom retains water
a clay or plastic cover caps it when full
What shouldn't go into landfill:
Metals
Food scraps (methane production)
water is collected and transported to water treatment facility
Land may be reclaimed (playgrounds built over it)
Location for a Landfill (siting)
Soil: clay
Away from rivers/streams
Far from population
Politically charged decision
Often comes with a NIMBY attitude
Problems with Landfills
EPA estimates almost all landfill have some form of leaching
Little Decomposition takes place
Methane leaching
http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/30218-really-big-things-americas-landfills-video.htm
Incineration
3/4 of MSW combustible
Can reduce waste
Volume: 90%
Mass: 75%
End Products:
Ash
tested for toxicity
If "nontoxic," it can be
dumped in landfill
road construction
cement blocks
If "toxic"
It is dumped in a special landfill
more expensive to put MSW in an incinerator than a landfill
Ash is more concentrated and therefore more toxic
need to burn a lot of MSW to profit
people not encouraged to recycle
Hazardous Waste
liquid, solid, gaseous, or sludge that is harmful to humans/environment
36 million metric tons produced/year
only 5% is recycled
MWS hazardous waste comes from:
oven cleaners
batteries
lawn fertilizers
Hazardous waste is:
difficult to collect
must be treated before disposal
Legislation
US Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)
Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA)
1976
aimed at protecting humans and natural environment
sought to reduce/eliminate hazardous waste
Cradle-to-grave practice
tracks hazardous waste to minimize improper disposal
Aka Superfund act
1. taxes chemical and petroleum industries
revenue is used to clean up waste sites where party responsible cannot be established
2. EPA maintains National Priorities List (NPL)
a list of contaminated sites eligible for cleanup funds
Superfund sites:
2010, EPA listed 1,284 sites
one in every state except North Dakota
New Jersey: 114 sites
CA & PA : 94 sites
NY: 85 sites
MA: 31 superfund sites
http://yosemite.epa.gov/r1/npl_pad.nsf/f52fa5c31fa8f5c885256adc0050b631/5C1C06E8B65C7D6A8525692D00618240?OpenDocument
http://yosemite.epa.gov/r1/npl_pad.nsf/f52fa5c31fa8f5c885256adc0050b631/ACCDF91E74362E9E8525691F0063F6CC?OpenDocument
Haverhill
Groveland
Brownfield Sites
Superfund sites are managed by federal government
highest risk to human health
1995, EPA created brownfields program
assist state and local governments in cleaning up land
usually a result of industrial and commercial activity
Drawbacks:
ineffective way to manage 450,000 + contaminated sites
lacks legal liability controls to compel polluters to rehabilitate their own property
http://yosemite.epa.gov/r1/npl_pad.nsf/51dc4f173ceef51d85256adf004c7ec8/7513c63046ef66ea85257241005865df!OpenDocument&Highlight=0,peabody
http://peabody.patch.com/articles/walnut-street-park-may-be-named-for-east-end-veterans#photo-10470110
New ways of thinking about waste
Life-Cycle analysis
life-cycle analysis: follows beginning to end
procurement of raw material
-->
Manufacture
-->
Use
-->
Disposal
Life cycle analysis are helpful in evaluating economic and energy considerations of a product
Alternative ways to Handle Waste
Integrated Waste Management
employs disposal strategies to reduce total MSW
Ex: Volkswagen makes car parts easily come apart in order to recycle more efficiently
The Throwaway Society
Think of a way an individual could "reduce" a waste product
Ex: As a teacher, I can double side my handouts to reduce my paper use by 50%
Full transcript