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Copy of Nursing Theory Graphic Organizer

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Tami Colosimo

on 19 October 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Nursing Theory Graphic Organizer

Nursing Theory Graphic Organizer
Dorothea Orem
Ernestine Wiedenbach
Dorothea Orem
Jean Watson
Nursing Theory Graphic Organizer
Jean Watson
Joyce Travelbee
Ernestine Wiedenbach
Joyce Travelbee
Human-to-Human Relationship
Human-to-Human Relationship
Prescriptive Theory
Theory of Human Caring
Theory of Human Caring
Tami Colosimo,
Monica Tavakoli,
Blanca Gonzalez,
Marek Grabowski
March 26, 2013
Louise Black-Robinson
Self Care Model
Self Care Model
Prescriptive Theory
Nursing Theory Graphic Organizer
Tami Colosimo, Monica Tavakoli, Blanca Gonzalez, Marek Grabowski
Major Concepts
Approaches to Patient Care
Approaches to Patient Care
Major Concepts
Major Concepts
Approaches to Patient Care
1. Human Being- valued persons who need to be cared for, respected, nurtured, understood and assisted
2. Health- a high level of overall physical, mental, and social functioning, an adequate level of daily functioning, and the absence of illness.
3. Environment/society - caring has existed in every society. Caring is transmitted by the cultur of the profession.
4. Nursing- is to promote health, prevent illness, and care for the sick.
The nursing process consists of trying to solve problems and provide a framework for decision making. The process includes: Assessment, Plan, Intervention, and Evaluation.
•Assessment: A nurse should observe, identify and review the problem(s).
•Plan: collect data, determine how variables would be measured for problem solving.
•Intervention: What direct action is to take place?
•Evaluation: Was the outcome successful? Analysis of the data are examined and additional hypothesis may be generated.
•A patient who has delivered an infant with congenital anomalies may have feelings of despair, grief, anger, resentment, and denial. Much attention and care should be given to the parents and other family members. Complete assessment of the infant, adequate data collection, prognosis status, and a detailed plan of care need to be fully explained to the family. Developing a helping-trusting relationship is key and can help reduce anxiety levels. Being sensitive to the situation makes the nurse more authentic, this would promote self-growth in both the nurse and those who interact with her.

•A patient who has a history of drug use and has been testing positive in the hospital, was told her infant will not be released to her. Although individuals are quick to want to judge such persons, it is important for the nurse to put aside her own negative feelings and use a professional approach when dealing with such matters. Watson believes that caring is a different way of being human, therefore care should be given to the patient appropriately regardless of her neglects. The nurse should listen, observe, assess, and try and find the best solution to the problem. There may be endless possibilities for a nurse who demonstrates behavior that involves care and interest.
Major Concepts
Ernestine Wiedenbach Prescriptive Theory
Approaches to Patient Care
Ernestine Wiedenbach Prescriptive Theory
• A philosophy
- The nurses' philosophy is their attitude and belief about life and how that affects reality for them.
-There are three essential components associated with a nursing philosophy:
-Reverence for life.
-Respect for the dignity, worth, autonomy and individuality of each human being.
-Resolution to act on personally and professionally-held beliefs.

A purpose
- The nurse’s purpose is that which the nurse wants to accomplish through what he or she does.
- It is all of the activities directed towards the overall good of the patient.
A practice
- Practice is those observable nursing actions that are affected by beliefs and feelings about meeting the patient’s need for help.
The art
- Understanding patients’ needs and concerns.
- Developing goals and actions intended to enhance patient’s ability.
- Directing these activities related to the medical plan to improve the patient’s condition.
- The nurses also focuses on prevention of complications related to reoccurrence or development of new concerns.

(Current Nursing, 2012)
Approaches to Patient Care
Ernestine Wiedenbach’s concept of nursing practice consisted of the identification of a patient's need for help through observation of presenting behaviors and symptoms, exploration of the meaning of those symptoms with the patient, determining the cause(s) of discomfort, and determining the patient's ability to resolve the discomfort or if the patient has a need for further assistance from the nurse or other healthcare professionals (Cardinal Stritch University Library, 2012). The patient’s perception of the situation must be taken into consideration by the nurse (Cardinal Stritch University Library).
• Wiedenbach’s approach to patient care has some similarity to the nursing process. For example, identification of a patient’s need for help can be achieved through a holistic assessment of the patient and gathering subjective and objective information on the patient’s present condition.
• In a hospital setting, it would be important to determine the status of any distressing issues and also assess if any new issues have arisen during the course of treatment and address them.
• Some issues can be managed or resolved with the use of appropriate nursing interventions or implementation of orders that have already been written.
• For example, an overweight patient is admitted for abdominal pain and does not want to get out of bed and complaining of constipation. The nurse could teach him the importance of ambulation when his pain is tolerable to help promote motility of the gastrointestinal tract. Any routine and as-needed medication shall be given. When he is unable to ambulate, he can be reminded to reposition self every two hours to continue to increase GI motility and prevent complications such as pressure sores due to his size. Collaboration with the dietician could also help emphasizing increased fluids and fiber intake.
(The philosophy and science of caring Jean Watson 2010).
(Jean Watson's Theory of Nursing, 2012).
•Suffering, which is "an experience that varies in intensity, duration and depth...a feeling of unease, ranging from mild, transient mental, physical or mental discomfort to extreme pain...."

•Meaning, which is the reason attributed to a person

•Nursing, which helps a person find meaning in the experience of illness and suffering; has a responsibility to help people and their families find meaning; and the nurse's spiritual and ethical choices, and perceptions of illness and suffering, which are crucial to help patients find meaning.

•Hope, which is a faith that can and will be a change that would bring something better with it. Six important characteristics of hope are: dependence on other people, future orientation, escape routes, the desire to complete a task or have an experience, confidence that others will be there when needed, and the acknowledgment of fears and moving forward towards its goal.

•Communication, which is "a strict necessity for good nursing care."

•Self-therapy, which is the ability to use one's own personality consciously and in full awareness in an attempt to establish relatedness and to structure nursing interventions. This refers to the nurse's presence physically and psychologically
•Targeted intellectual approach by the nurse toward the patient's situation.
“A nurse does not only seek to alleviate physical pain or render physical care – she ministers to the whole person. The existence of suffering, whether physical, mental or spiritual is the proper concern of the nurse" (Travelbee, 1963, p. 72).
Nursing is accomplished through relationships between humans beginning with an original encounter and then progressing through stages of emerging identities, developing feelings of empathy and sympathy.

The nurse and patient establish a rapport in the final stage. Meeting the nursing goals requires the creation of a genuine human-to-human relationship, which can only be established by an interaction process. This process has five phases: the initial meeting or original encounter, the visibility of personal and emerging identities, empathy, sympathy, and establishing mutual understanding and rapport.
This theory has greatly influenced hospice nursing in that hospice nurses focus on the relationships with their patients to improve quality of life. The nurse builds rapport by building a positive feeling of security by genuinely dealing with her as if they were real friends. The caregiver should express a desire to know the patient and realize each person is a unique individual in dealing with his or her sickness. . Travelbee emphasized that the professional nurse must be able to “assist patients to find meaning in the experience of illness, suffering and pain” (Travelbee, 1963, p. 72). Providing knowledge and meaning can help an already vulnerable patient to have a sense of control and purpose. “The amount of time spent with a patient is not as important as what the nurse does with that time” (Travelbee, 1963, p. 71).
A patient that has a terminal diagnosis will experience anger, grief, despair, denial, depression. The family will also experience some of the same feelings.
Comprehensive assessment – health promotion, family system assessment, unresolved personal issues. Is important to include the family and help them walk through the grieving process. The patient will experience self care deficit as the disease progresses, having develop a care plan according to what the patient wishes will help decrease anxiety.
•Theory of self-care
•Self care- the activities that individuals perform in order to maintain life, health and well being
•Self care agency- the ability to perform self care; age, socio-cultural, health and other available resources
•Therapeutic self care demand- the amount of actions that is required to meet the desire self care
1.Universal self care requisites
2.Developmental self care requisites
3.Health deviation self care
•Theory of self-care deficit
• Nursing intervention is required when an adult is incapable of effective self care
•There are five methods of helping
•Acting and doing for another
• Guiding and directing
• Physical and or Psychological support
• teaching
•providing an environment that will meet the needs of future demands
•Theory of the nursing system
•Wholly compensatory
•Partly compensatory
•Supportive- educative system
1. Social or Interpersonal
Communication must be age appropriate
Maintaining interpersonal communications and coordinate care
Assistance must be adapted to patient’s needs, abilities and limitations

2.Regulatory technologies
Maintaining and promoting life
Promoting human growth and development
(Current Nursing, 2012)
Orem's theory does not just views the person as a whole, but integrates nursing knowledge to restore and maintain the patient's optimal health. Self Care Deficit when applied to nursing practice identifies the self care requisites of the patient in different areas. Performing a detail comprehensive assessment will help in providing care in a comprehensive manner. Applying this theory in the management of patients will identify the method of nursing assistance (acting and doing for, guiding, teaching, supporting, providing a developmental environment) and the nursing systems used (wholly compensatory, partly compensatory or supportive-educative) could be used to solve the identified problems of the patient with self care deficit
Cardinal Stritch University Library. (2012). Ernestine Wiedenbach: Helping art of clinical nursing. Retrieved from http://www.stritch.edu/Library/Doing-Research/Research-by-Subject/Health-Sciences-Nursing-Theorists/Ernestine-Wiedenbach---Helping-Art-of-Clinical-Nursing/

Current Nursing. (2012). Dorothea Orem : Nursing Theories a companion to nursing theories and models. Retrieved from http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/Dorothea_Orem.html

Current Nursing. (2012). Ernestine Widenbach: The helping art of clinical nursing. Retrieved from http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/Ernestine_Wiedenbach.html

Nursing. (2012). Joyce Travelbee: Human-to-human model. Retrieved from http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/Joyce_Travelbee.html

Jean Watson's Theory of Nursing. (2012). Retrieved from http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/Watson.html

Suliman, W. A., Welmann, E., Omer, T., & Thomas, L. (2009). Applying Watson's Nursing Theory to Assess Patient Perceptions of Being Cared for in a Multicultural Environment. Journal Of Nursing Research (Taiwan Nurses Association), 17(4), 293-300.

The philosophy and science of caring Jean Watson. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/1NU07/jean-watson-5372896

Travelbee, J. (1963). What do we mean by rapport? The American Journal of Nursing, 63, 70-72.
(Current Nursing, 2012)
(Current Nursing, 2012)
(Current Nursing, 2012)
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