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Copy of History of Animation
Transcript of Copy of History of Animation
The history of animation has well developed over the years and here are some example of how it has.
1900: Enchanted Drawing
The first film that was recorded on standard picture film and had animated sequences was the 1900 “Enchanted Drawing” created by J. Stuart Blackton. This short picture film consisted of a man and a drawing that keeps changing and the bottle and hat appearing to come out into real life.
1906: Humorous Phases of Funny Faces
1906 “Humorous Phases of Funny Faces” also by J. Stuart Blackton, is the first completely animated film –because of this he is considered the “father of American animation”. This features a cartoonist drawing faces on a chalkboard, and then these faces would come to life. It has movements such as when a dog jumps through a hoop and faces that keep changing emotions and movements. The film moves at 20 frames per second.
1908, the French artist Emile Cohl created the first animated film that was made with traditional animation creation methods, this film was called “Fantasmagorie”. This film consisted of a stick figure moving about and touching morphing objects e.g. a wine bottle that transforms into a flower.
1910: En Route
1910 Emile Cohl also made another film called “En Route” the first paper cut-out animation ever made. The technique of this would only need to keep repositioning the paper rather than having to redraw each thing.
This animation is all in french and had text frames to explain the happenings and plots throughout the animation.
1912: Revenge of the Cameraman
1912 the artist Starewicz made the first narrative puppet film “Revenge of the Cameraman”. This involved him having to create these bug puppets and taking a photo for each motion, as this was one of the early days stop-motion film. This film was about a beetle couple who were unfaithful to one another who then gets caught by the end and gets sent to jail.
1914: Gertie the Dinosaur
1914 The first popular animation by Windsor McCay was made, this was called “Gertie the Dinosaur” and thus Cel animation was born.
Cel animation is an animation where each frame was drawn by hand, this was the most used technique before computer animation. This would have gone through the process of storyboards and script writing. And use a lot of layers, they would use a transparent sheet which objects are drawn onto.
1915: Out of the Inkwell
1915 “Out of the Inkwell” by Max Fleischer came out and the first use of Rotoscoping was created.
Rotoscoping is a technique where animators would trace over their footage, frame by frame when creating an animated film. Originally the live action film images would be projected onto a frosted glass panel and then drawn again by an animator (the projection equipment is called a Rotoscope). This device was soon replaced by computers.
1928: Steamboat Willie
This is an 1928 american animated short film directed by Walt Disney and Ub Twerks. This was the first animation with sound and was first produced in black and white by the Walt Disney studios. Moreover, this was considered one of the first showing of Mickey Mouse and his girlfriend Minnie. In fact this was the third of Mickey's film to be produced but was first to be distributed.
1926: The Adventures of Prince Achmed
1926 Lotte Reiniger releases the first animated feature film called “The Adventures of Prince Achmed”. This film features a silhouette animation technique Reiniger had made which involved manipulated cardboard cutouts and thin sheets of lead under a camera. The technique she used for the camera is similar to Wayang shadow puppets, but hers were animated frame by frame, not manipulated in live action. There were some coloured backgrounds used for this animation also.
This animated feature film is about a handsome prince who rides a flying horse to faraway lands and go on magical adventures, which includes making friends with a witch, meeting Aladdin, battling demons and falling in love with a princess.
This short film was about a mouse called Mickey who wanted to stir the steam boat, but only does so shortly as he then gets kicked out by Captain Pete, soon after he meets Minnie and wants to entertain her by making musical instruments out of the animals on the boat. In the end he is sent back to his post by Caption Pete, where he has to peel off potato skins.
1937: Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs
This was the first animation with colour made by Walt Disney. This film was made with cel animation and the first in motion picture history. This film was the first with colour and sound.
The popularity of this film lead it to being re-released several times theatrically.
1937: The Tale of The Fox
The tale of the fox was created by Starevich and is the first animation film with puppets. This film was first released in Germany in 1937 and then released in France in 1941.
This film is about Master Fox is used to tricking and fooling everyone in the kingdom of animals. So the King (the Lion) receives a lot of complaints about him. In the end the Lion orders that Master Fox is arrested and brought to him..
1953: Beast From 20,000 Fathoms
This 1953 film was Harryhausen’s first Dynamation film.
This film is about a dinosaur who was awoken by an atomic explosion in the arctic circle, which then begins to wreak havoc among New York city.
This was the first monster film that started off the whole monster-overtaking the city kind of theme seen in many films to follow.
1961: Do It Yourself Cartoon Kit
This film was created by Bob Godfrey and consisted of cut out animation; he brought popularity to this technique in the UK with this film.
1980: The Empire Strikes Back
The Empire Strikes Back is released back in 1980, and it features the first uses of go-motion technique. The film shows real life actors on real life sets, however it uses go-stop motion for the scenes with some of the metal ships.
Looker was the first movie to use CGI animation; and is the first commercial film to attempt to make a realistic computer generated character.
The film is a suspense/science fiction genre which comments upon and media, advertising, TV's effects on the popularity, and ridiculous standard of beauty. It is about a Plastic surgeon Larry Roberts who does a series of minor alterations on a group of models who are seeking perfection. The operations are a seem to be successful. But when someone starts killing his patients, Dr. Roberts becomes suspicious and starts investigating.
1984: Nausicaa of the Valley
This film showcased the first usage of CGI on realistic looking living creatures
1993: Jurassic Park
They used actual footage of the hurricane and then inputted CGI of the dinosaurs in the shots.
Made in 1995, Toy Story was the first full-length 3D CG feature film.
1995: Toy Story
Toy Story was the first fully computer animated feature film. Recruiting animators for Toy Story was quick; people joined just for the taking part in the first computer-animated film idea.
This film was the first computer animated movie viewed with 3D glasses.
1997: Marvin the Martian
Marvin's design was based on a conception of the Roman god Mars.
This was the first movie created by Hayao Miyazaki; this was first planned using drawn storyboards. This film was created before Studio Ghibli was even born (the company who made this). We can see that the cartoons are very japanese cartoon like (anime/manga) as more films from this production are also this style.
In 2005, there was two films released, one being Wallace & Gromit: Curse of the Were-Rabbit and the other being Corpse Bride - these were released within two weeks of each other.
Corpse Bride is the first stop-motion film to be shot digitally.
2005: Wallace and Gromit- Curse of the Were-Rabbit and Corpse Bride
2007's Beowulf was entirely made in CGI, this features motion capture for all actors and has a goal of making the CGI look realistic.
They had generated new animation tools for facial, body, and cloth design especially for the movie, and elements of keyframe animation were formed into the movie to capture the facial expressions of the actors and actresses.
The film Avatar made in 2009, was the first full length movie made using "performance-capture" to create really realistic 3D characters and to feature a complete Computer Graphic 3D photo-realistic world. The first Virtual Art Department (VAD) and complete Virtual Production pipeline was developed by director James Cameron and his team to create the film in real-time.
Developments of this film began in 1994, when Cameron wrote an 80 page treatment for the film. Filming was supposed to take place back n 1997 however Cameron had thought that the necessary technology wasn’t available yet, to achieve what he vision the film to be. So he waited and whilst doing so, he worked on the other features such as the language.
This film is about a princess who is a pacifist, who struggles in trying to prevent two nations from destroying themselves, each other and their planets.
Go motion is a type of stop motion animation that uses motion blur into each frame.
Sources Page 2.
A cel (short for celluloid) is a transparent sheet for objects; they are drawn or painted (for the hand-drawn animation). Actual celluloid (used cellulose nitrate and camphor) was used for the first half of the 20th century, but since it was flammable it was replaced by "cellulose acetate". In major productions these days, the technique has almost been abandoned because of the computer assisted animation. Disney studios stopped using cels back in 1990 when CAPS(computer animated production system) replaced this technique in their animation process. A software that can be used for 2D cel animation is "CelAction".
Character would usually be drawn on cels and then laid over a static (still) background drawing, this method would reduce the number of times an image would need to be redrawn and enables studios to split up the production process in different teams. Using this way to animate made it possible to make films with less cost. The outlines of the images were drawn on the front of the cels while colours would be painted on the back to get rid of the brush strokes; traditionally the outlines were hand inked but since 1960's they were mostly photocopied on. An important breakthrough in cel animation was the development of the "Animation Photo Transfer Process"; this was first seen in "The Black Cauldron" (released in 1985).
The person who invented this technique is Earl Hurd, who released the process back in 1914.
Rotoscoping is an animation technique in which animators trace over footage, using frame by frame to use in live-action and animated films. Originally, the recorded live-action film images would be projected onto a frosted glass panel and then re-drawn by an animator. This projection equipment is called a "Rotoscope", this device was eventually replaced by computers.
"Out of the Inkwell" started this technique back in 1915.
This technique would occur by tracing an object, you would then create a silhouette (also called matte) this is created to extract that object from a scene to use on different backgrounds. In recent years, blue and green screen techniques have made the process of layering subjects in scenes easier; rotoscoping is still used however and plays a large role in the production of visual effects imagery. This technique is also used to allow a special visual effect (such as a glow for example), this has been guided by the Matte or rotoscoped line.
Puppet animation is an technique made where the animator would use puppets to make a film/animation, rather than using objects. This is a form of stop-motion animation, as the animator would use the puppets to move in the different frames. The puppets would usually be created with human-like features so that it can be freely moved easily to show it doing different movements through the animation. The way it works is by taking pictures and moving the puppet in different frame. Therefore the hardware would be the puppet itself and the camera, the software could be "Animator" or "CharMapper"
The film ‘The Humpty Dumpty Circus’ (1908) created by J. Stuart Blackton and Albert smith had recieved credit as the first stop-motion animation film that features puppets.
The software that people use for this technique could be Mocha.