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Minerals by Mr. Angelo

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Angelo Arce

on 14 May 2016

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Transcript of Minerals by Mr. Angelo

Two Groups of Minerals
Silicate Minerals:
- Contain a combination of Silicon and Oxygen
-Silicon and Oxygen are 2 ost common elements in Earth's crust
- make up 90 % of Eath's crust
What is a Mineral?
-A naturally formed, inorganic solid
that has a crystalline structure

-Minerals composed of atoms
in repeating 3d patterns
Is it a mineral?
1. Is it nonliving material?
Crystals
- Atoms and molecules in a repeating pattern that creates a solid, geometric form
Is it a Mineral?
Gold
Minerals by Mr. Angelo
ROCKS ARE MADE OF MINERALS, BUT MINERALS ARE NOT MADE OF ROCKS!!!!
Crystal System
Habit:
2. Is it a solid?
3. Is it formed in nature?
4. Does it have a crystalline structure?
Definitions:
Element:
Substance that cannot be separated or broken down into simpler substances by chemical means
Compound:
Substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds
Crystal:
A solid whose atoms, ions, or molecules are arranged in a definite predictable pattern
Atom:
smallest part of an element that has all the properties of that element
Native Element:
A mineral composed of only one element
Example?
- shape is determined by the arrangement of atoms and molecules within the crystal
- Each mineral has definite crystal structure
- Minerals grouped into crystal classes according to kinds of crystals formed
Form:
- Term to indicate outward appearance
- Includes descriptive terms as tabular, equidimensional, acicular, massive, reniform, drusy, and encrusting
- crystal faces with same relationship to the elements of symmetry of a given crystal system
-display the same physical and chemical properties
-ATOMIC ARRANGEMENT (internal geometrical relationships) of the atoms composing them is the SAME
- relationship between form and the elements of symmetry is an important one to grasp
-no matter how distorted a natural crystal may be, certain key elements will be recognizable
Water
Cat
Diamond
Saphire
Ruby
Salt
Oxygen
Dog
Emerald
Graphite
Pencil
Eraser
Teacher
Cubic Zirconia
Nonsilicate Minerals:
-Does not contain a combination of silicon and oxygen
-make up 10 % of Earth's crust
Color:
- variety of color
-color effected by impurities, water, air
Quartz
- in purest form clear
- color comes from impurities
Pyrite (fool's gold)
- normally has a golden color
-if exposed to air for a long time turns brown or black
Luster:
- the way a surface reflects light
-shiny and dull describes the luster
-metallic, submetallic, or nonmetallic luster
-Submetallic or non-metallic = dull
Streak:
- color of mineral in powdered form
-formed by rubbing against unglazed porcelain
-not affected by air or water
-therefore more reliable than color
Way mineral breaks is due to arrangement of atoms
Cleavage:
- spliting along smooth flat surfaces
Fracture:
-breaking along curved or irregular surfaces
Hardness:
-Mineral's resistance to being scratched
-determined by Moh's hardness scale
-greater the hardness, the harder to scratch
-identify hardness by scratching with a reference material
Density:
-measure of how much matter is in a given space (golf ball vs ping pong ball)
-ratio of object's mass to density
-water's density is 1 g/cm3 (used as a reference point)
-ratio of object's density to density of water
= specific gravity
ACTVITY!!!!
-Pick a mineral
-Identify Color, Luster, Streak, Cleavage and fracture, hardness, and density
Magnetite
- special property: magnetic
- Some animals' brains contain magnetite
-Fish can sense magnetic fields
Magnetite gives a sense of direction
Where to find minerals?
-Found in variety of environments in Earth's crust

-Environment has different physical and chemical conditions

- Therefore, environment determines mineral properties

-Can be found closer to Earth's surface or closer to Earth's core

-Ex] formed by salt water evaporation, movement of magma
Mining
Surface mining:
-mineral deposits near surface
-
Open pits:
removes economically important minerals such as gold and copper
-
Quarries:
Open pits that mine for
Subsurface mining:
-For minerals deep with Earth
-Requires passageways to reach the ores
What are the responsibilities of Mining?
- Mining gives us minerals we need
-However, destroys habitats of plants and animals
-Also, waste products from mine can contaminate water sources
Mine Reclamation
- Way to reduce potential harmful effects
- Return land to original state after mining
-Required by law since mid 1970's
Other way to reduce mining?
- Reduce our need
- Recycle minerals in use, such as aluminum
Space Mining
-Scientist speculate in valuable deposits of minerals in other bodies of solar system
Use of Minerals
- major economic and industrial importance
Metallic:
-have shiny surfaces
-Do not let light pass through them
-Good conductors of heat and electricity
-Uses?
Nonmetallic:
-shiny or dull appearances
-may let light pass through them
-good insulators of electricity
-uses?
Gemstones:
-nonmetallic minerals
-valued for beauty and rarity over importance
-include diamond, ruby, saphire, emerald, aquamarine
-color is most important characteristic
-more attractive = more valuable
-mass expressed as CARAT
Carrot vs Karat vs Carat

Carrot: Vegetable
Carat: unit for mass of gem
Karat: purity of gold
GROUP QUIZ!!!
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