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Copy of Copy of Filipino Social Psychology
Transcript of Copy of Copy of Filipino Social Psychology
SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY has been defined as the study of how people think & feel about their social world & how they interact & influence one another
Known as the father of Filipino Psychology "Ama ng Sikolohiyang Pilipino"
Major force behind the Sikolohiyang Pilipino movement (1975, 1982, 1987, 1989)
Pioneered on the effective use of indigenous methods in Philippine Social Science Research.
Pambansang Samahan sa Sikolohiyang Pilipino (National Organization of Filipino Psychology) a field he established in 1975.
Crusaded for a Filipino -defined psychology of Filipinos written in the native language
Virgilio G. Enriquez
His (1987) paraphrase of Constantino's (1975) views in a psychological context reads thus:
The use of English as the medium of instruction in psychology made possible the speedy introduction of American-oriented psychology & values. With American textbooks in psychology from Thorndike, Krech, Crutchfield, & Ballachey to Hilgard, Filipinos began learning not only a new psychology, but a new culture. Education became miseducation because it began to de-Filipinize the Filipino psychologists, taught them to look up to American departments of psychology as always years ahead of Philippine counterparts, to regard American psychology as always superior to theirs, & to American society as the model par excellence for Philippine society.
Enriquez further stated:
Philippine psychology's colonial character as a captive of an American-dominated, English-speaking world is one of Sikolohiyang Pilipino's major areas of protest. Psychology as a western-oriented discipline is supposed to be partial to universal findings, to 'generalizability' & external validity. The scientific character of psychology is accepted by Sikolohiyang Pilipino, but its universality is questioned by the Filipino as it is being questioned elsewhere.
Development of Filipino
Filipino Social Psychology?
(difference between "tao sa bahay" & "taong-bahay")
Sikolohiyang Pilipino thus refers to psychological theory, knowledge, method, & application developed through the Filipino culture.
He likened Sikolohiyang Pilipino to the taong-bahay, a committed person who has a role & meaning in the household, rather than just a temporary occupant of the house.
Filipino social psychology should rightfully be the "taong-bahay", the Sikolohiyang (Panlipunang) Pilipino as distinguished from Sikolohiya (Panlipunan) sa Pilipinas or Sikolohiya (Panlipunan) ng Pilipino
Sikolohiyang Panlipunan ng Pilipino refers to theories/research on the social psychology of the Filipino done by both foreign & local researchers
Sikolohiyang Panlipunan sa Pilipinas (Social Psychology in the Philippines) refers to a series of events related to social psychology in the Philippines & may include "the number of degree programs & journals, the amount of research conducted & so forth."
Sikolohiyang Panlipunang Pilipino is a product of the Filipino cultural experience, cognition, & orientation
Western Theoretical Models
Indigenization from without (sometimes referred to in
the literature as cross-cultural validation work)
Indigenization from within (indigenous research utilizing
the locals' own methods to elicit & study
culture-specific social behaviors)
Before the 70s
Psychology in the Philippines was closely linked with education & the educational process
In the 70s & 80s
Several American-trained social psychologists came home & started teaching at two major Philippine universities:
at the University of the Philippines;
Anna Miren Gonzalez-Intal
at the Ateneo de Manila University
Yacat, Pilar, & Reyes
These researchers looked at attributions made by male & female participants on success & failure outcomes
An Original Filipino
Social Psychological Theory
Methodological Approaches in a Filipino
Santiago & Enriquez outlined a preliminary model for Filipino research & defined two scales:
the iskala ng mananaliksik & the iskala ng pagtutunguhan ng mananaliksik at kalahok
The iskala ng mananaliksik includes culturally-appropriate research mehodologies ranging from the simple to the complex:
The iskala ng pagtutunguhan ng mananliksik at kalahok includes degrees of relationship between researcher & study participants. Basis for selecting the research approach to use are:
Two summary categories:
the ibang-tao or outsider category (pakikitungo, pakikisalamuha, pakikilahok, pakikibagay, & pakikisama)
the hindi-ibang-tao or insider category (pakikipagpalagayang-loob, pakikisangkot, & pakikiisa)
The Content of FIlipino Social Psychology
refers to research studies applying Western theoretical models & methodologies to the local setting
Filipino Social Psychology was developing & was of great interest to local researchers. Social psychological research in the Philippines was dominated by western theories & methodologies.
The 1969 issue has 3 psychological papers: one on the attribution of punishment among Filipino children, another on correspondent inference theory, & a third on ethnic stereotypes.
Gonzalez-Intal & Valera called for an examination of "the vast body of social psychological theories & concepts," & testing or applying these to the Philippine context because "the many social development issues of concern to Filipinos provide fertile ground for the application of social psychological theories & concepts."
refers to any inference by a social perceiver about the cause of a social other's behavioral action or set of actions
Abregana's paper examined upland farmers' attributions for success & failure in farming & correlated these with their success expectancy estimates & actual behavior of adopting new farm practices.
This Indonesian researcher found that among the Javanese, success was often attributed to luck & other non-self-related factors, whereas failures were internalized as one's own fault.
is the study of how psychological factors affect political behavior, as well as how political factors affect psychological functioning & performance
The early pioneer in this research area is Montiel
of the Ateneo de Manila University.
refers to research using indigenous methods & approaches to elicit & study culture-specific social behaviors
Indigenization from within focuses on similar applied research questions, but uses a different theoretical perspective & methodological orientation.
Gender & Gender Relations
Filipino social psychological research on gender & gender relations has been very broad.
Some stereotypic beliefs about masculinity & femininity are not described by actual studies, the domestication of women remains a dominant orientationamong Filipino men & women.
One of the earliest researchers in environmental psychology was Abraham Velasco of the UP Forest Research Institute who prepared a social-psychological analysis of kainginero & their relationship with their environment.
He used pagmamasid & pakikipanayam as his major methodological tools.
Sto. Domingo compared the environmental consciousness of fishermen with scientist-technicians working in the lakeshore area
Galvez developed the ginabayang talakayan method of research and used it to study the cognitions & behaviors of dynamite fishermen.
Enriquez proposed "kapwa" as a core concept in Filipino social psychology, an alternative concept envisioned to help explain Filipino interpersonal behavior.
He defined "kapwa" as "the unity of the self & others, a recognition of shared identity, an inner self shared with others."
The major departure of the kapwa theory from western models is its non-individualist orientation & its marriage of self & other.
From the concept of shared inner self in kapwa emanates the social behavior of pakikipagkapwa, which means "accepting & dealing with the other person as an equal."
Enriquez linked the core value of kapwa (shared identity) to the socio-personal value of kagandahang-loob (shared humanity) & other social values like karangalan (dignity), katarungan (justice), and kalayaan (freedom)
According to him, indigenization from within begins with the identification of key concepts in the indigenous culture, followed by a semantic & lexical elaboration of these concepts.
The key concepts are identified by the researcher, based on his or her own sociocultural experiences.
After identifying these key concepts, the researcher tries to find other words & meanings related to them by using key informants & respondents.