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Audience reception theory
Transcript of Audience reception theory
This television effect is enhanced because of the decline of religion as the major storyteller in society
Television is the major source of violent images
4. Heavy Viewers
o Are less selective in what they view
o More likely to expect to be involved in violence
o More worried about walking alone at night o Resonance occurs when repeated symbolic portrayals of violence cause viewers to replay real-life experiences with violence over and over Cultivation theory is a social theory which examined the long term effects of television on the audiences. There are three types of viewers: light medium heavy developed within academic literary theory and cultural studies Types of audience Fan group Audience of medium Gratification set Group or public
(eg. political) Audience centered approach Audience actively seeks media for information in order to gratify a need People are not helpless victims of mass media, but infact they use media to satisfy their needs.
Focus on consumer or audiences instead of the actual messages Media served the functions of surveillance, correlation, entertainment and cultural transmission for both society and individuals Utility—Mass communication has uses to people.
Intentionality—Media consumption is directed by prior motivation.
Selectivity—Media behavior reflects prior interests and preferences.
Imperviousness—The lessened ability of media to influence an obstinate audience Exploring the active choices; uses and interpretations made of media materials; by their consumers Stuart Hall The same event can be encoded in more than one way
The message contains more than one possible reading
Understanding the message can be a problematic process; regardless of how natural it may seem Some children may not be highly influenced by media whereas others may imitate them to a great extent; for eg. like a child may try to fly like superman and jump out of the window. Political-media political campaigns Put forth by Sigmund Freud in the late 19th and the early 20th century.
Analysing the audiences' thinking.
Defined as an end user analysis.
A profile of the unintended audience can be created with the consideration of many factors;such as age,culture and knowledge. Psychoanalysis Irrational drives unconscious drives Early childhood effects Reality v/s Illusion Resistance Helps to understand the psychology of the audience This analysis allows media to encode their messages in a manner which is simple, relative and apt for the audience. Encoding and Decoding model Cognitive needs-—Acquiring information, knowledge and understanding. Affective needs-—Emotion, pleasure, feelings. Personal integrative needs—-Credibility, stability, status. Social integrative needs-Family and friends. Tension release needs—Escape and diversion He found that heavy
viewers held beliefs and opinions similar to those portrayed on
television rather than the real world which demonstrates the compound
effect of media influence. (1980's and 1990's) Ball-Rokeach and DeFleur (1976) defined it as “a relationship in which the capacity of individuals to attain their goals is contingent upon the information resources of the media system.” Three questions to be unraveled in media studies What is the potential that is offered and what problems or threats are posed by new forms of media technology? What form of media bureaucracies or industries should be created to control or regulate media technologies so that their potential is released and threats minimised? How can media serve democratic and culturally pluralistic societies?