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Methods Timeline Revised

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Tom Lewis

on 26 September 2012

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Transcript of Methods Timeline Revised

From grammar translation to post-method... ELT Methods Timeline Social Context: Emerged from techniques used to teach Latin
Key Principles: Deductively taught grammatical principals; Focus on accuracy
Key skills: Reading, Writing
Weaknesses: Doesn't prepare students for verbal communication Late 18th - Early 19th Centuries
Grammar-Translation Social Context: Reaction to grammar translation - International business and travel required communicative skills
Key Principles: Target language only; Inductive grammar acquisition, everyday vocabulary and sentences
Key Skills: Speaking, Listening
Weaknesses: Requires small groups; Teacher-centered End of 19th Century
Direct Method Social Context: Military needs near the end of the WWII, Structuralist and Behaviorist influences
Key Principles: Language is habit formation - Correct responses are reinforced; Analogy; L2 is used in classroom
Key Skills: Speaking, Listening
Weaknesses: Chomsky's generative grammar; Repitition and drilling are boring 1940s - 50s
Audiolingualism Social Context: Response to "de-humanizing" of audiolingualism; Influenced by social unrest of 1960s
Key Principles: Respect for individuals; Respect for learner's knowledge; Student-centered
Key Skills: Speaking; Listening
Weaknesses: Pedagogy as psychotherapy; Lack of analysis 1960s - 70s
Humanist Approaches:
Community Language Learning, Total Physical Response, Suggestopedia, The Silent Way Social Context: Move from focus on language structures to a focus on communication; Greater international mobility created greater need for communication skills
Key Principles: Communicative competence; Real-life language; Student-centered
Key Skills: Speaking, Listening
Weaknesses: Not appropriate in some cultural contexts; Trivialization of teaching and learning; Fluency is overemphasized at the expense of accuracy 1970s - 2000s
Communicative Language Teaching Teachers seek out "best-practices" for their particular context from all available methods and strategies. Current Theory:
Post-Method Era
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