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# Lesson 1. To-Infinitive(JOO)

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## hyeongsoon joo

on 28 March 2013

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#### Transcript of Lesson 1. To-Infinitive(JOO)

제1장 부정사. It is necessary for you to go there. (O) ☞ ( necessary, impossible, natural, difficult ..)
위와 같은 형용사는 사람을 주어로 쓸 수 없음. (참조)
He is very cruel to kill a dog. (O)
=> It is very cruel of him to kill a dog. (O)
You are necessary to go there. (X)
=> < 부정사 용법, 시제 > to부정사의 부정 ‣ to부정사 앞에 not을 붙여 만들며,
‘~하지 않기 위해서’로 해석됩니다.

‣ He ran not to miss a bus. 3. 부사적용법 : 목적을 나타내는 to부정사(예시) ‣ Jim studies hard.
+ He wants to get good grades.

→Jim studies hard (in order/so as)
to get good grades. 3. 부사적용법 : 목적을 나타내는 to부정사 ‣ to부정사는 ‘~하기 위해서’로 해석되어 목적을 나타내기도 합니다.
‣ 이때는 ‘to’ 대신, ‘in order to‘, ‘so as to‘로 바꿔 쓸 수 있습니다. to 부정사란? ‣ 동사가 명사/부사/형용사 역할을 할 때,
‘to+동사원형’의 형태로 바뀌는데,
(not) to +동원 이를 to부정사라고 함

‣ I want to be a scientist.
나는 과학자가 되고 싶어. ◈ 독립 부정사 :관용구로 암기 to tell the truth(=to speak the truth):사실을 말하면
so to speak(= as it were= in other words):말하자면
strange to say: 이상한 말이지만
to be sure (=surely): 틀림없이
to be frank(=plain) with you: 솔직히 말하면
to be brief (= in a word= in brief): 간단히 말하면
to begin with (= first of all): 무엇보다도
to make matters worse : 설상 가상으로
to say nothing of(=not to speak of = not to mention = needless to say): ~은 말할 것도 없이
to make a long story short: 간단히 말해서
to do one justice: 공정하게 말해서 부정사 5 Unit 13 부정사의 용법 Chapter 3. 부정사의 부사적 용법 :
「~하기 위하여, ∼해서, ~하면」

ex. We eat to live , but do not live to eat. ~하기 위하여
I’m sorry to trouble you. ∼해서
You could not do that to save your life. ~하면 3. 부정사의 부사적 용법을 알아 봅시다. If you are to succeed , you must
work hard.
(= If you intend to succeed , you must
work hard. They were never to meet again.
(= They were destined(doomed) never to
meet again.) My house is to be seen from the station.
(= My house can be seen from the station.) You are to obey your parents.
(= You should obey your parents.) We are to meet her at 9 o’clock.
(= We are due to meet her at 9 o’clock.) (예정) :

(의무) :

(가능) :

(운명) :

(의도) : 부정사의 명사적 용법 :「∼하는 것, 기」

ex. To know oneself is difficult.

My wish is to travel around the world.

I like to play computer games. 1. 부정사의 명사적 용법을 알아 봅시다. to부정사의 부정 예문 ‣ Be careful not to catch cold.
감기에 걸리지 않도록 조심해라.
‣ Write it down not to forget it.
그것을 잊지 않기 위해 받아 적어라.
‣ I turned off the TV not to disturb her.
나는 그녀를 방해하지 않기 위해 TV를 껐다.  앞의 형용사가 사람의 성격을 나타낼 때 of + 목적격 부정사의 의미상의 주어 1. 개념 : 부정사의 행동을 하는 주체.
2. 형태 : for(of ) + 목적격
It is easy for me to learn English.
(의미상 주어)
It is kind of you to say so.
(의미상 주어) I saw her singing a song. 지각동사는 목적보어로 현재분사를 쓰기도 함 지각동사 + 목적어 + 동사 원형
: see, watch, hear, feel, listen to등 동사의 목적보어 ex) We saw our flag fly in the wind.
He heard his wife sing a song. 2. 부정사의 형용사적 용법 : 「∼하는, ∼할」

ex. I need a book to read.

Give me something to eat. 2. 부정사의 형용사적 용법을 알아 봅시다. 부 정 사 란? I want to study English.
I let him go.
I decided not to go there. 문장에서의 역할(용법)
: 명사, 형용사, 부사 형태 : to + 동사 원형, or 동사 원형
부정 : not + to 부정사 3. 부사적용법 : 목적을 나타내는 to부정사 예문 ‣ We came here to study English.
‣ I got up early to catch the train.
‣ We waited patiently to hear the news. I don’t know how to drive.
(목적어) 부정사의 용법 . 1. 명사적 용법 : 주어, 목적어, 보어의 역할 ex) To see is to believe.
(보는 것-주어) (믿는 것 - 보어)
I want to swim.(수영하기를-목적어) She turned off the radio to sleep. of him of you (비교) She turned off the radio to sleep.
(부사목적) * 사람의 성질을 나타내는 형용사( kind, nice,
foolish, wise, clever, cruel, stupid, good, bad,
rude….) => 의미상 주어 : of + 목적격 (b) of + 목적격 for her baby It is kind to say so. (you)
(= You are very kind to say so.)
It was wise not to spend the money. (he) She turned off the radio that her baby
might sleep.
= Let me go out . (바램)
He made me do it at once. (강제)
I had her make lunch. (부탁) (b) 사역동사 ( let, make, have ) + O + O.C (5) I saw him go out of the house.
I heard her sing a song. (a) 지각동사( see, hear, feel, watch, look at,
listen to ….) + O + O.C ( 5 형식) 2)(지각동사),(사역동사) + 목적어 +원형 부정사 I must (= have to) go there. 1) 조동사 + 동사 원형(원형 부정사) *원형 부정사 : ( to 없는 부정사) He worked hard so that he might pass the exam.
= He worked hard so as to pass the exam.

He worked so hard that he passed the exam.
= He worked so hard as to pass the exam. <열심히 공부해서 합격 했다>
* so ~ that …(= so ~ as to…) : 결과 (대단히~ 해서
…하다.) <합격 하기 위하여 열심히 공부 했다>
* so that ~ might...(= so as to...) :목적(...하기 위하여) He worked hard to save money. He worked hard so that he might save money. He worked hard in order to save money. He worked hard so as to save money.
=(복)
=(단)
=(단) She was so ill that she couldn’t come to school. She was too ill to come to school.
= for me This book is very difficult, so that I can’t read it . This book is too difficult to read. This book is so difficult that I can’t read it.
=
=> He is so young that he cannot understand it. He is too young to understand it.
= (b)정도,결과: too (형,부) to ~ = so (형,부) that ~ cannot
※ too ~ to :1) 너무 ~ 해서 ~ 할 수 없다. :결과
2) ~ 하지 못할 정도로 대단히 ~하다 :정도 ex) He made me carry the boxes. 사역동사 + 목적어 + 동사 원형
: let, make, have, help 등(--시키다) to부정사를 목적보어를 취하는 동사
: want, ask, tell, hope, decide 등 동사의 목적보어 ex) I wanted him to come early.  He is rich enough to buy a car. Ex)  Sang-ho is strong enough to climb
Mt. Everest.
= Sang-ho is so strong that he can
climb Mt. Everest. 부정사의 용법 enough to부정사:-할 수 있을 만큼 --하다. We eat to live , but do not live to eat. ex) I went there to meet Jane. (목적)
(--하기 위하여) 부정사의 용법 부사적 용법 –목적 : 동사를 수식 I don’t know how to drive.
(목적어) ex) To see is to believe.
(보는 것-주어) (믿는 것 - 보어)
I want to swim.(수영하기를-목적어) 부정사의 용법 . 명사적 용법
: 주어, 목적어, 보어의 역할 동사가 자동사이면 부정사 뒤에 전치사를 쓴다. Ex) I have many things to do.
(해야 할 일)
I want a friend to play with.
(같이 놀 친구) . 2. 형용사적 용법 : 명사 뒤에서 그 명사를 꾸며 줌 I work hard lest I (should) fail.
*( lest ~ should…=>…하지 않도록 ) I work hard not to(=so as not to, in order not to) fail. He works hard that he may pass the exam.
so that can
in order that will
< 부사절 : 목적 >: (복문)
=

= I work hard that(=so that, in order that)I may not fail.
=
= He works hard with a view to passing the exam.
<전치사구:~하기 위하여> He works hard to(=so as to,in order to)pass the exam.
<부정사 부사적 용법:목적> (c)목적: ~ 하기 위하여 I don’t know how to drive.
(목적어) ex) To see is to believe.
(보는 것-주어) (믿는 것 - 보어)
I want to swim.(수영하기를-목적어) 부정사의 용법 . 명사적 용법
: 주어, 목적어, 보어의 역할 참고자료 I don’t know what to do.
=I don’t know what I should do. 의문사+ 주어+ should+ 동사 의문사 + to 부정사 It was foolish of him to meet such a friend. It wasn’t easy for me to find your house. 2. It was foolish to meet such a friend.(him) 형 성 평 가 (2) 주어진 말을 이용하여 의미상의 주어를 만드시오.
1. It wasn’t easy to find your house. ( I ) 부사적 형용사적 명사적 명사적 1. It is funny to watch TV.( )
2. My hobby is to play tennis. ( )
3. I want something to drink. ( )
4. I am glad to meet you. ( ) 다음 부정사의 용법을 말하시오. 형 성 평 가 (1) He is too old to do the work.
= He is very old, so he can’t do the
work. ex) Mother is too busy to play with me.
=Mother is very busy, so she cannot
play with me. too ~ to부정사: 너무 ~해서 ~할 수 없다. 부정사의 용법 it Unit 13 부정사의 용법 > 1. 명사적 용법 : ~하는 것, ~하기 (3) 목적어 : 5형식 문장에서 가목적어 it을 사용 1. 명사적 용법 <가목적어 it> He promised not to be late for school. to부정사의 부정: not[never] to + 동사원형 She wants to be a famous entertainer. I think very bad to tell a lie. 먹기위해 살기위해 We eat to live , but do not live to eat. ex) I went there to meet Jane. (목적)
(--하기 위하여) 부정사의 용법 부사적 용법(목적) : 동사를 수식 I promised to help her. I expect that he will succeed. It is likely that he will resign. He expects that he will succeed. I hope that I shall learn English. 원하는 내용이 미래(기대,희망 등)인 ‘미래동사’
(hope, wish, promise, want, expect,be likely, intend, remember …) 다음의 부정사 =>시제는 미래시제 3. 미래부정사 I hope to learn English.
=
He expects to succeed.
=
I expect him to succeed.
=
He is likely to resign.
=
I promised that I would help her.
= he will succeed He seems to have been ill.
=
He seemed to have been ill.
= 2. 완료부정사(to+have+P.P.): It seemed that he had been ill. It seems that he was (= has been) ill. It seemed that he was ill. It seems that he is ill. 본문시제보다 과거 본문시제와 일치 1. 단순부정사(to+동사 원형): 부 정 사 시 제 He seems to be ill.
=
He seemed to be ill.
=
I expect him to succeed. :(기대, 희망 동사 )
(= I expect that .)☞ 3.미래부정사 참조 To do my best, I could not pass the exam.
(=Though I did my best, I could not pass the exam. 6. 양보 : 비록 ~ 했으나, 아무리 ~한다 할지라도 It is easy to read this book.(명사적 용법) To tell the truth, I don’t know the answer. 8. 독립 부정사(무인칭 독립 부정사) :부사적 용법
=> 문장 전체 수식 This book is easy to read. (부사적 용법)
(비교) 7. 정도 : (~하기에 … 하다 ) :형용사 수식 To do(= if you do) it again, you will be punished.
I should be glad to go(= if I could go) with her. 5. 조건 : (만일) ~ 라면 He must be a fool to say such a thing.
She cannot be rich to wear like that. 4. 이유, 판단 : ~하다니, ~하는 것을 보고 I am glad to meet you.
He was surprised to see her there. 3. 원인 : ~하여서, ~하니, ~하고 He grew up to become a great scientist.
My father lived to be ninety. 2. 결과 : ~하여 …하다(되다) He got up early to catch the first train.
I went to the park to meet my friend. 1.목적 : ~하기 위하여, ~하려고 3. 부사적 용법 ◈ 예정 ◈ 의무 ◈ 가능 ◈ 의도 ◈ 운명=> 5개 내용 (도구),(용지),(내용) 2. 서술적 용법: be + to 부정사가 주어와 동격이
아닌 설명적 내용 일 때 I have no friend to help me.
(= I have no friend who can help me.)
The day will soon come for us to repent of it.
(☞ The day for us to repent of it will soon come.)
Give me something to write (with).(on).(about). 1. 한정적 용법: 명사, 대명사 수식 B: 형용사적 용법 The girl is too young to go to school. He is kind enough to help me. 2. 그 소녀는 너무 어려서 학교에 갈 수 없다.
(too~to 구문을 이용하여) 1. 그는 나를 도와 줄 만큼 친절하다.
(enough to 구문을 이용하여) 우리말을 영문으로 옮기시오. 형 성 평 가 (2) glad, happy, pleased, sorry, sad, surprised 등 English is very interesting to learn. (4) 형용사 수식 He grew up to become a pilot (3) 결과 : ~해서 (결국) 하다 I’m glad to see you Unit 13 부정사의 용법 > 3. 부사적 용법 She went to the station to see him off. We got up early in order to catch the
first train. 목적 : ~하러, ~하기 위하여 (2) 감정의 원인 : ‘~해서’라고 해석하며 감정을 나타내는 형용사 뒤에 온다. 3. 부사적 용법 It <가주어> <목적격보어> <주격보어> I believe him to be honest. My dream is to travel all around the
world. Unit 13 부정사의 용법 > 1. 명사적 용법 : ~하는 것, ~하기 To play badminton is a lot of fun.
= is a lot of fun to play badminton. 주어 : 보통 주어로 쓰인 to부정사는 가주어 it을 사용 (2) 보어 :「주어=to부정사」또는「목적어=to부정사」의 관계가 성립 1. 명사적 용법 동사가 자동사이면 부정사 뒤에 전치사를 쓴다. Ex) I have many things to do.
(해야 할 일)
I want a friend to play with.
(같이 놀 친구) 부정사의 용법 . 형용사적 용법
: 명사 뒤에서 그 명사를 꾸며 줌 We can not but laugh at him.
(= We can not help laughing at him.) ※ can not but + 원형 : ~하지 않을 수 없다. You had better stay in the bed.
You had better not go there. (=You’d better ~) ※ had better + 원형 : ~하는 것이 좋다. <수동의미> <능동의미, 진행뜻> <사실내용> 3)지각동사+O+O.C ( 원형 , 현재분사 , 과거분사) <수동뜻> <능동뜻> <사실> 4) 관용적 표현 I saw him cross the road.
I felt the house shaking.
I saw the flag raised. He is very rich, so that he can buy a new car.(중) honest a man He is so honest that we trust him.
= He is such an honest man that we trust him.
= He is so that we trust him. (참조) : so (형,부) that = such (명사) that ~ :결과 He is so rich as to buy a new car. (단) He is so rich that he can buy a new car. (복) He is rich enough to buy a new car. (단)
=
=
= (a)정도,결과: (형용사,부사) enough to ~
=so(형,부)that ~ can = so(형,부) as to ~
※so ~ that : 1) 대단히 ~ 해서 ~ 하다 : 결과
2) ~ 할 정도로 대단히 ~ 이다 : 정도 8. 관용적 표현 <가능=could> <의무=must, have to> <예정=will> Nothing was to be seen in the sky. You are to finish the work by five. He is to arrive here the day after
tomorrow. There is no chair to sit on. I don’t have any friends to play with. to부정사 뒤에 전치사가 필요한 경우가 있다. Unit 13 부정사의 용법 > 2. 형용서적 용법 Please give me something cold to drink. 명사 수식 : 명사 뒤에서 앞의 명사를 수식하며, ‘~할, ~해야 할’이라고 해석 (2) be+to부정사 용법 : 예정, 의무, 가능, 운명, 의도 등 2. 형용사적 용법 for me For me It is difficult to finish the work in a day.
(가주어) (진주어) ( ) To finish the work in a day is difficult.
= 3. 의미상의 주어=> to부정사 앞에 for ( of )+목적격 2. 목적어와 같은 경우 => 생략
I expect him to come at once.
= (a) for + 목적격 This is the book to read. for you I expect that he will come at once. He went to London that he might learn English. 1. 주어와 같은 경우 => 생략
He went to London to learn English.
= 부 정 사 의 미 상 주 어 This is the book that you should read.
= 형용사 용법 (C)
(서술적 용법) He is to go abroad this summer.
(예정)=> 3. (보어) 2. (목적어) 1. (주어) I found it difficult
to solve the problem. It is wrong to tell a lie. (진목적어) (가목적어) (가주어) (진주어) His job is to sell cars.
(비교)=> She wanted to be a nurse.
I found to solve the problem difficult.
=> To tell a lie is wrong.
=> A: 명사적 용법 : S, O, C 로 쓰임 부정사:(to)+동사원형 => (to부정사, 원형부정사) ‣ He got up early.
+ He didn't want to miss the soccer game.

→He got up early not to miss the soccer game. ex) I went there to meet Jane. (목적)
(--하기 위하여) 먹기위해 살기위해 We eat to live , but do not live to eat. Lesson 1.

Hyeongsoon Joo <목적어>
Full transcript